Jesus christ preached about God in simple terms traveling across Palestine region between his 30 years and 33 years of age. With these preachings, he laid the foundations for peace and compassion in human society.

His preachings are:
1. God is one and he is the most merciful. He is the creator of entire creation.
2. Everyone should develop brotherhood feelings about others.
3. Loving the people who are in distress is equal to worshipping God.
4. One should serve others without expecting anything from them.
5. Serving people is equal to the worship of God.
6. If one repents for his mistakes God will forgive him.
7. Love your enemy. Do good to the people who try to harm you.
The spread of Christianity:
When he was alive, Jesus Christ entrusted the responsibility of spreading his teachings and helping the people in distress to his twelve disciples. They are called as apostles. Most important among them was Saint Peter. He went to Rome and established a Church and sent missionaries all over the world to spread the gospel. Today, this Church has become the most important religious centre for the Catholics of the world.

In the beginning, the Roman Emperors did not disturb the promotion of Christianity. Thus it spread all over the Roman Empire very fast. But after the first century Roman emperors started persecuting the missionaries. Though many obstacles were created in spreading the word of Jesus, the preachers did not withdraw from it.

The preachers of Christianity continue their work unhindered. Later, in Fourth century Constantine accepted Christianity as the national religion in C.E 313. Since then, it got the support of the state and spread into Rome, Greece, Macedonia and Asia Minor. Conversions carried out by the Roman Church and missionaries are responsible for the expansion of Christianity. The holy book of Christianity is ‘Bible’.


Jesus Christ
Christianity was established in the beginning of First century C.E in Nazareth province of Palestine. It was under the reign of Roman Empire. Jesus Christ was the founder of Christianity.

Before the arrival of Christianity, the Jews of Palestine had become slaves to superstitious practices. They were subjected to various hardships due to the misrule of Romans. In such a situation Jesus Christ was born and founded Christianity.
Life and Teachings of Jesus Christ
Many details of Jesus Christ´s early life are unknown. Available sources suggest that he was born into a poor family of Joseph and Mary at Bethlehem village near Jerusalem. He did not get proper education. Despite this he acquired a lot of religious knowledge by his extraordinary power of intelligence and interpreted the holy of books Jews in a simple language.

At the age of thirty he came under the influence of John Baptist and was baptized by him. He enlightened the people in distress by divine teachings and made them psychologically strong. This made him very popular among the people and he was known as a messiah or the saviour of the people. Day by day, his service to the poor and kindness was known to all and he became very popular among all sections of the society.

Gradually people considered him as a Godly man. The priestly class of Jews opposed this. They complained against Jesus Christ to the governor of Roman Empire Pontius Pilate, charging him of treason. After the trial he was taken to Golgotha on a Friday and crucified on the cross. Now, Christians observe this day as Good Friday.


Answer the following questions.
1) Where was Oliver twist born? Oliver twist was born in the poor house of a little country town.
2) Who were present when Oliver was born? A doctor and a poor and experienced woman were present when Oliver was born.
3) What happened to the mother as soon as the child was born? As soon as the child was born the mother died
4) What did the mother look like while she was alive? The mother was a young and good looking woman while she was alive.
5) Who was Mr. Bumble? Mr. Bumble was beadle of town.
6) How did Mr. Bumble treat the children? He starved and ill-treated the children under his care.
7) What did oliver’s friends want him to ask the master. They persuaded Oliver to ask more from the master.

Answer the following questions.
1) How were the children fed in the house? The children were fed in a large stone hall, with a big metal basin at the end. The master stood by the basin and served each child with a small bowl of watery gruel.
2) Why was a council held by the boys? What did they decide in it? Boys did not get enough food in the poor house. They were always hungry. So they held a council in which it was decided to ask more. Oliver twist was appointed to ask more of the master.
3) What did Oliver ask his master for? Oliver asked his master for more food.
4) How did the master react to the request of Oliver? The master aimed a blow at his head seized him by his arms and shouted for the beadle.
5) What was the punishment that Oliver got for asking for more? As punishment for his greed and boldness Oliver was immediately locked in room to spend the night alone.
6) What did Mr. Bumble ultimately decide to do with Oliver? He ultimately decided to drive out Oliver from the poor house and declared that reward of five pounds would be given to the person who would take Oliver away from the poor house.
7) What was Oliver’s crime according to Mr. Bumble? According to Mr. Bumble Oli􀇀er􀍛s crime was asking for more.


Answer the following questions.
1) What does the poet remind us of in first line of the poem? In the first line of the poem the poet reminds us that no men are strange and no countries foreign.
2) What according to the poet are we doing when we hate others? When we hate others we wage war against them and impure our earth and air. We harm the innocent people on earth.
3) What are the two bad effects of war? If we wage war against each other. It is the human earth that we. Our hells of fire and dust outrage the innocence.

Read and discuss your responses with your partner.
1) How do you think we are treated alike by nature? Nature allows us to walk in the same land, It gives us food and all of us in this land face difficulties during hard days. At last we die in the same earth.
2) Read the third stanza carefully what message does the poet want to convey. The poet wants to convey that we are all same; we have same eyes. We all sleep and awake. He gives the message that strength can be won by love.
3) Do you agree with the poet that we should wage no war. How do you justify that? We agree with the poet that we should wage no war. War is the main cause for destruction hatred cruelty. It spoils the earth. It is the symbol of betrayal and cruelty.
4) Some are of the opinion that the poet might have written this poem after witnessing the bad effects of the II world war. Mention some of the lines in the poem to support your answer. Remember, we who-take arms against each other. It is the human earth that we defile out hells of fire and dust outrage the innocence. These lines support the answer.
5) Briefly described how a war spoils everything. War creates hatred. It spoils the feeling of brother hood and love. Crores of people will be killed and wounded Food production is slow. People have to starve. Beautiful buildings, bridges water resources. Industries will be destroyed. Prises will raise. The man’s life becomes very hard. The whole world will become a desert.

Lesson (6) Continueation

4) Why was the narrator surprised next morning? Next morning when the narrator came to the spot he was surprised because then dark boy was commanding while the little white youngster did everything. The little dark boy was striding imperiously up and down on the lawn, while the white youngster walked abjectly behind him.
5) How did the two boys behave while playing? The little white boy walking majestically up and down, and every now and then shouted in a commanding tone at his bigger playmate. The little brown boy dragged on quietly behind him and did what he was told.
6) What made the narrator think that the black boy could be the son of a servant or a classmate of the white boy? Noticing the colour, eyes and hair of the both boys author came to the conclusion that the black boy must be son of the servant of the white boy. The black boy obeyed the commands of the white boy and did what the white boy told him.
7) What were the two points that the narrator wanted to clarify to the white man? Narrator wanted to clarify that, the white boy was not commanding the black and the two boys were playing a game. He told the white man that we grown-ups were silly.
8) The two boys though brothers, differed in their colour. What might be the reason? The reason is that though their father was a white man their mother was a brown woman.
9) If you were the white man, how would you read to the narrators comment? I would have clearly told the narrator that his ideas were wrong. There was no discrimination between the black and the white. The white man would never boss over the black in our country.

Lesson (6) a. Jamaican Fragment- A. L. Hendricks.

Answer The Following Questions.
1.Why Was The Morning Walk Pleasant To Mr. A.L. Hendricks? Morning Walk Was Pleasant To Him Because He Could See On Either Side, Red And Green Roofed Bungalows Green Lawns And Gardens.
2. The Exercise Is Good For Me Says The Narrator What Was That Exercise? The Exercise Was Walking Half A Mile From His Home To Rail Tracks Lines In The Morning And From The Lines To His Home In The Evening.
3. What Did Narrator Notice One Morning? Narrator Noticed Two Boys Were Playing In The Garden Of The More Modest Cottages.
4. How Did The Smaller Boy Behave While Playing With Bigger Boy? The Little White Boy Walked Majestically Up And Down And Every Now And Then Shouted In A Commanding To At His Black Playmate. The Black Boy Did What He Was Told.

Answer The Following Questions.
1. What Sight Surprised The Narrator The Next Day? The Next Day When Author Went To The Spot Where The Boys Were Playing Now The Dark Boy Was Commanding While White Younger Did Everything. The Little Dark Boy Was Striding Imperiously Up And Down The Lawn, White Boy Walked Abjectly Behind. This Sight Surprised The Author.
2. What Were The Two Commands Given By The Black Boy To The While Boy? The Two Commands Given By Black Boy To The White Were. “Give Me A Banana” And ‘Peel It For Me’
3. Why Was The White Man Surprised At The Narrator’s Outburst? The White Man Surprised Because He Came To Know The Narrator Did Not Know That The Boys Were His Sons And They Were Brothers.
4. Why Do You Think The Narrator Smiled At The End? The Narrator Thought That The White Were Still Bossing The Blacks. When He Saw The Play Of Boys For The First Time, He Thought About The Racial Discrimination. The Whole Day He Thought Next Day When He Found The White Boy Serving Dark Boy Everything Was Clear. He Came To Know That It Was The Game That The Boys Were Playing. He Was Happy When Heard That The Boys Were Brothers. He Smiled And Expressed His Happiness.

Some Statements Are Given Below Some Are True And Some Are False Write ‘T’ Or ‘F’ In The Box Provided Against Each Sentences Accordingly.
1. The Bigger Boy Was Black. (True)
2. The Black Boy Ordered The White Boy To Pick Up That Stick. (False)
3. The White Boy Sat On The Lawn. (True)
4. The Two Boys Were Not Dressed Alike. (False)
5. The Little Boys Were Playing When The Narrator Passed By In The Afternoon (False).
6. The Next Day A Man Was Playing With Boys (False)
7. The Game That The Two Boys Played Was The Same Game The Author Had Played During His Child Hood (True)
8. I Know What You Are Thinking Said The Man Standing At The Gate To The Narrator (False)
9. The Father Of The Boys Was White And Mother Was Brown (True)
10. 92% Of Jamaica Is Inhabited By The Blacks (False)

Choose The Correct Answer. For Each Of The Statements Four Alternatives Are Given As Answers. Choose The Best Alternative.
1. The Two Boys In The Story Are (B) Brothers
2. The Commands That The White Boy Gave To The Black Boy – They Were. (C)
3. Three In Number. 3) The Black Boy Had Mat Of Coarse Hair In His Head Coarse Means. (A) Rough

Sir C.V. Raman. notes

I. Answer the following questions. 1) Who were Raman’s Parents? Chandrashekara Iyer and Parvathi Ammal were Raman’s parents.
2) Why was Raman not able to attend the school regularly? Raman was not able to attend the school regularly because he used to fall sick now and then.
3) Where did he complete his Intermediate examination? He completed his intermediate examination from Hindu college.
4) What subjects did his relative advise him to take for B.A.? His relatives advised him to take History and Economics for B.A.
5) Why could not Raman go to the United Kingdom for higher studies? Raman could not go to United Kingdom for higher studies because his health broke down again. C
II. Answer the following questions.
1) How long did he work at Calcutta University? He worked for fifteen years at Calcutta University.
2) What made Raman give up the highly paid post of special Accountant General? His keen interest in science made him to give up the post of special Accountant general.
3) How did Soviet Union honour him? The Soviet Union honoured him by awarding the international Lenin prize. C.
III. Read the following questions then write.
1) What makes you think that Raman even as a boy had great interest in Science? Even as a boy Raman had made the model of dynamo. He was very much interested in Science. During his school days he borrowed science books from college students and read them.
2) Why did Raman􀍛s relatives ask Raman to take up arts subject? How did Raman react to it? His relatives asked him to take up arts subjects, which would enable him to appear for competitive examination and get highest job in the Government. But Raman did not like it. He took science for his B.A: and M.A. examination and secured first class.
4) What was Raman’s first dis appointment in life? After his M.A. Raman wanted to go to the United Kingdoms for higher studies in science. But his health broke down again and he could not go. This was the greatest dis appointment in his life.
4) Why was Raman not happy with the post of Deputy Accountant General? Raman was not happy how could a scientist like Raman put up with the life of Deputy Accountant General? He felt like a fish out of water in his new post. But he still hopes of becoming a scientist.
5) How can you say that Raman had not lost interest in science when he was the Deputy Accounted General? Raman’s interest for science was alive when he saw a banner in a building which was printed. “The Indian Association of scientists”. At the sight of the banner Raman got off the moving train and went to meet the scientists. In Rangoon he learnt that an institution had bought a piece of modern scientific apparatus he hurriedly put on his clothes and went to that his interest in science was still alive and he had not lost interest in Science.
Vocabulary V1 Fill in the blanks with the words opposite in meaning to the words under lined. 1) We should neither borrow nor lend. 2) Why do you feel old? Feel young. 3) Don’t stand outside come inside. 4) Are wealthy people really happy or unhappy/sad? 5) Eat less work more. V-2. The pronounciation of the following pairs of woods are almost the same but they differ in meaning use each word in the pair in meaningful sentences. 2) knew, new Knew: He knew about the great scientits of the world. New: We wear new clothes on the days of festivals. 3) Sight – site Sight: Raju saw beautiful sight near Banvasi. site: My father purchased a site near Saibaba’s temple. 4) Some – sum Some: Some students attended the class but others did not attend. Sum: This sum is very difficult to solve. 5) Plays – Place Plays: Last sunday many plays were enacted Mantap.

Beauty E-Yeh-Shure

Answer the following questions. 1. List out the things where beauty can be seen during the day. The Sunlight, the tree, the birds, growing corn, people working and dancing.
2. Poet Says 􀍚􀄏eauty is heard in the night􀍛. Pi􀄐k out any two things of beauty from the poem that are seen at night. Wind sighing, rain falling.
3. Read the first and second stanzas of the poem again. Note the following phrases. Corn growing, people working of dancing, wind sighing, rain falling, a singer 􀄐hanting…… These could be written as Corn that is growing People who are working of dancing. Can you rewrite the other phrases like this? Why do you think the poet uses the shorter phrases? Wind that was sighing, rain that was falling, as singer who is chanting, 4. The poet says 􀍚Beauty is seen􀍛 and 􀍚Beauty is heard.􀍛 List out the beautiful things you have seen or heard. 􀍚Beauty is seen􀍛- Flower, rainbow, forest, dancing peacock. 􀍚Beauty is heard.􀍛- waterfall sound, birds singing, roaring waves. 5. The Poet says 􀍚Beauty is in yourself.􀍛 What things does she mention here? When does she want us to follow them? Good deeds, happy thoughts that repeat themselves in your dreams.

idea of a good school.

According to me a good school is one where boys get living education. The school should give scope to all the students to develop their natural tastes of their liking if they prefer music or spinning painting etc.

They should be taught accordingly. It is better to keep the boys away from the bookish knowledge. Students must be allowed to take part in sports and game. In good school scope should be provided for meditation and boys must be allowed to ask questions to their teachers and gain knowledge. I don’t want that boys in the school would be passive listeners. ‘Prayer, singing hymns meditation all these should become part of education. If the instruction is given in the open air instead of classrooms boys enjoy. Education in different Handicrafts will prepare boys for their future life.

6) Write a few lines about your school using the following clues. Our School is located in the heart of the city. The name of our School is National School. It is located near the temple of Saibaba. The building of our School is beautiful and solid. There is a beautiful garden in front of our school. There is vast playground behind the school building we play different games after school hours. There are good experienced and learned teachers in our School. They take utmost interest in teaching us. They allow us to ask questions and solve our problems. There is a big laboratory. All the facilities for experiments are available Teachers help us to conduct experiments. Students are allowed to play different games like football, Cricket, hockey, kabaddi, basketball etc. Our school is a model School; It prepares good citizens of our country.

A Day in the Ashram

1) Who named the School Shantiniketan? Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore named the School Shantiniketan.
2) When does the day in Shantiniketan begin? The day begins long before the sunrise.
3) What is termed by Gurudev as the darling of our hearts? Shantinikethan is termed as darling of our hearts by Gurudev.
4) Which phrase is used in paragraph to mean both the old the young people? The Phrase used is “old and young alike” 5) The boys in Shantinlketan get up early in the morning. Who else are the early risers? The Choristers and the birds on the amloki groves are early risers.

II. Answer the following questions.
1) What kind of work do the boys practise in the afternoon? In the afternoon boys practise the work chiefly with hands as well as with the mind. Hand work is practised.
2) What are Shantinikethan boys famous for? Shantinikethan boys are famous for their sports and games.
3) How do the boys spend evenings before they go to bed? Before they go to bed some fairy tales are told, short dramas are recited Gurudeva’s songs are sung and different school gatherings are held.
4) Read the second Paragraph carefully what it describes is_ Ans- (b) the song of the choristers.

III. Read and discuss. Then write:
1) What is the effect of the song of the choristers on the listeners? The Choristers are the first to rise and they go round the Ashram singing their morning hymn, you can hear the voices in distance drawing nearer and nearer and then the sound dies away as choir passes on to another port of the Ashram and then again it comes nearer and near. The beauty of the sound in the silent morning air and the sense of joy and reverence which it brings give peace to the soul.
2) How are the classes held in the afternoon in Shantiniketan? In the afternoon classes begin again but at this time the work is chiefly with hands as well as handiwork is practised and the boys own natural tastes are very soon discovered. Some prefer carpentry others prefer mechanical work others enjoy spinning and weaving others become skilled in draftsman or painters other are musicians
3) How do the boys spend their evenings in Shantiniketan? In the evening at sunset they return from their fields and sit down once more for a short time to meditate, in silence.
4) How are the classes at Shantiniketan different from the classes in other schools? In other School’s all the boys are made to learn certain subjects. They do not give scope for the development of natural facts. Only bookish knowledge is important. Teachers do not take interest in discovering natural talents of the students. But in Shantiniketan work of books is less. School is conducted in the open air. Boys are allowed to ask questions. Instead of 40 to 50 boys, there will be group of 8 to 10 boys. Teachers take keen interest. The boy is allowed to practise and learn in which he is interested. It may be carpentry, painting, music, spinning or weaving. The education here is the ‘living education.’
5) How does Shantiniketan prepare the boys for life? The education here is the living education. Boys are taught according to their tastes and preferences. They enjoy learning and become exports in the subject of their liking. That is how Shantiniketan prepares boys for life. IV. Living Education Unimaginative Instruction Meditating learners Learning outside in nature, Students asking questions to Teachers Experimenting Creative thinking. Identifying, students natural tastes. Memorizing, punishing dictating notes, Passive listeners, bookish learning