Comte de Lally of French attempted to besiege Wandiwash in 1760. In this decisive battle Sir Eyre Coote of the English army defeated the French and imprisoned Bussi. Lally escaped and hide in Pondicherry. Finally, Eyre Coote attacked Pondicherry and Lally had to surrender unconditionally in 1761.
French had to lose all their bases in India due to Carnatic wars. In spite of this, as per the ‘Treaty of Paris’ in 1763, Pondicherry was returned to French. With these developments, French lost their importance in India. Like this, English by defeating all their rivals, started consolidating their power over the Southern India.
Know this:
Robert Clive: Robert Clive, who laid the firm foundation of the British Power in India, had joined the East India Company as clerk. He played a decisive role in Carnatic wars, particularly in the siege of Arcot and played a prominent role in the British victory. He was successful in establishing the British rule over South India and was instrumental in Bengal victory also.

After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, he gained control over the Nawab of Bengal also. Clive amassed immense wealth in all these ventures and helped the East India Company to earn more profit. Clive returned to England with immense wealth rich and became the Member of Parliament. With the return of Clive to England, the East India Company started facing losses in its business. Even though, there were many allegations against Clive, the British government had to resend Clive to India to save the company and also save the face of the country.

The British won the Buxar battle and earned back its respect again. Clive was successful in securing the Dewani rights for the British over Bengal, Bihar and Odisha regions. This brought more wealth to Robert Clive and to East India Company as well.


In the changed circumstances, French made Salabath Jung, another son of AsafJha as the Nizam of Hyderabad. An officer named Bussi was stationed in Hyderabad for his protection by French.

In Carnatic Chandasaheb was the Nawab with the help of French. Robert Clive of East India Company attacked Arcot, the capital city of Carnatic and defeated Chandsaheb. Chandsaheb was imprisoned and later killed in this war. In the place of Chandsaheb, the English named Mahammad Ali, the son of Anwaruddin, as the Nawab of Carnatic.

The second Carnatic war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry. French recalled Dupleix. This war brought laurels to English, while French suffered a political setback.


On the request of Dupleix, La Bourdonnais, a French military leader from Mauritius invaded Madras and captured it. This forced the helpless British to request the help of Anwaruddin, the Nawab of Carnatic for support. The army sent by Anwaruddin failed to defeat the French at Madras. Finally, La Bourdonnais took money from the English and returned Madras and went back to Mauritius. This enraged Dupleix and attempted to take Madras but failed in it. Finally, this war ended with a treaty in Europe between France and England called‘Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle‘.
Know this:
The Nizam of Hyderabad, AsafJha died in 1748. A tussle started between his son Nasir Jung and his daughter’s son Mujaffar Jung for the throne. On the other hand, a fight had broken out between Chandasaheb(who was released from the Maratha prison) and Anwaruddin in Carnatic. French extended their support to Mujaffar Jung in Hyderbad and Chandasaheb in Cranatic. The English extended their supported Nasir Jung and Anwaurddin.
IN 1749, the combined forces of French, Chandasaheb and Mujaffar Jung defeated Anwaurddin and killed him in Ambur battle. As a result Chandsaheb became the ruler of Carnatic. Mahammad Ali, the son of Anwaruddin, stayed at Thiruchanapalli with the help of English. In Hyderabad, Mujaffar Jung became the Nizam by killing Nasir Jung with the help of French and Chandasaheb. He got killed after a few days. The French made Salabath Jung, another son of Asaf Jha as the Nizam of Hyderbad.


The Portuguese and Dutch had withdrawn from India unable to withstand the competition from French and English by 18th century. Finally, French and English resorted to show strength in order to establish their political supremacy over India.

Meanwhile, political volatility aroused in the regions of Hyderabad and Carnatic (Eastern part of Tamil Nadu) and both the English and French tried to exploit the situation in their favour. This led to three Carnatic Wars.
Know this
Hyderabad Kingdom was established in 1724 by AsafJha. His feudatory ruler Dost Ali who was ruling Carnatic region was not loyal to him. The Marathas killed Dost Ali in 1740 and looted Carnatic and imprisoned his Son-in-law Chandasheb in Sathara. AsafJha named Anwaruddin as the Nawab of Carnatic in the place of Dost Ali.


With success of Portuguese, many Dutch, French and English arrived at India for trade. This development not only changed the history of India, it also changed the history of European countries.

Portuguese were the first to arrive at India for the trade and were also the last to leave India on the sea route. After Vasco da Gama, Francisco de Almeida arrived in India as the Viceroy of Portuguese. He implemented ‘Blue Water Policy’ in order to establish the supremacy over the Sea instead of supremacy over lands. Alfonso de Albuquerque, who came after Almeida, is considered as the real founder of Portuguese Empire in India. He waged a battle against the Sultan of Bijapur in 1510 and won Goa. Goa became the administrative centre of Portuguese administration in India. The Portuguese had absolute monopoly over trade with India for almost a century and their power declined with the arrival of English and French in India.

Dutch are from Holland or Netherlands. They established United East India Company in 1602 with the aim of doing business with eastern countries and entered countries like India, Java, Sumatra, Indonesia and spices rich islands. They established warehouses in Surat, Broach, Kambe, Kochin, Nagapatanim, Masulipatanam and Chinsor and other places in India. With this they broke the monopoly of Portuguese in India. Later, unable to face competition from English and French, Dutch limited themselves to Spice rich Islands.
Know this:
The Warehouses were the places of storing merchandise. Huge walls were built around these warehouses to provide protection.

In 1600, December 31, Queen Elizabeth issued a royal charter authorizing East India Company to trade with Eastern Countries for fifteen years. The company started the business formally in 1613. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir issued a royal permission to English to establish their first warehouse of factory at Surat. In 1617, Sir Thomas Roe arrived at the court of Jahangir as the royal ambassador from the court of James I. He sought permission from Jahangir to establish factories in other places of Mughal Empire. English established factories in Agra, Ahamadabad and Broach. In 1639, English took Madras from the King of Chandragiri and established a strong fort named St. George Fort. Later, Charles II, the Prince of England, gave Bombay as an annual rent of ten pounds a year to East India Company in 1668. In 1690, the English purchased three villages namely Sutanauti, Kalikata and Govindapura on the banks of Hugli River and built Fort William. The city of Calcutta grew around this fort. By 17th century, the English had established Bombay, Madras and Calcutta as the centers of their Presidencies. By the later part of Eighteenth century, the English made Calcutta as their capital city. They implemented their own Civil and Criminal Procedure Codes in the areas that were under their control.

4. French:
French East India Company started as a government owned company in 1664. It started its first factory in Surat in the year 1668. Later they established its factories in Machalipatanam, Chandranagara, Mahe, Karaikallu, Cossimbazar, Balasur. In 1674, the French took Valikandapuram from a local Muslim official and developed it as a major trade center. That center is Puducheri or Pondichery. Dupleix, who arrived in Pondicherry as the Governor General of French had the high ambitions of establishing French as the major power in South India. This ambition led to Carnatic wars with the English.


Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese sailor who left Lisbon and reached Kappadu near Calicut on the East coast of India in 1498. By this, he was successful in discovering a new sea route to India. This route continued to be the route of trade between India and Europe for many years. Like this Portuguese were the first to re-establish trade between India and Europe.
Know this:
In 1869, a huge canal was built in Egypt to connect the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea and it is called Suez Canal. Until the building of Suez canal, the sea route discovered by Vasco da Gama was the route used for the trade between India and Europe. The ships had to pass the Cape of Good Hope, the southernmost tip of Africa to reach India. The distance between Mumbai and London through Cape of Good Hope is 10,800 nautical miles (01 nautical mile = 1.85 KMS), it is only 6,200 nautical miles through Suez canal. The journey is reduced to half of the distance.


The trade and commerce relationship India had with Europeans

The arrival of Europeans to India for trade

The Carnatic wars in the backdrop of European political developments.

Battle of Plassey, Battle of Buxar and Dual-Government system

The British policy of aggression
There were trade and commerce relationship between India and Europe since ancient times. There was great demand for Indian spices like Pepper, Cardamom, Ginger and many other spices in Europe. The trade relationship continued between India, Europe and other Asian countries even during middle ages.

The Arab merchants carried the Asian merchandise into Constantinople of Eastern Roman (Byzantium) Empire. Italian merchants would buy these goods and then sell in European countries. Like this, Constantinople was the center of international business and considered as the ‘Gate of European Trade’. While Arab merchants had gained monopoly over the trade in Asian countries, Italian traders had gained monopoly over trade in Europe. The merchandise from Asia had brought good profits to Italian merchants.
The fall of Constantinople: The trade and commerce between Asia and Europe was taking place through the city of Constantinople. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks captured the city of Constantinople. As a result, all the trade routes connecting the city of Constantinople came under the control of Turks. The Turks started levying too many taxes on the goods passing through these routes. As a result, the merchants felt that the trade was not profitable. Meanwhile, Spain and Portugal were attempting to break the monopoly of Italian traders. They started encouraging courageous sailors to find a sea route to India.

The invention of Compass, Astrolabes, and Gunpowder provided further impetus to this venture.

What is Software

This topic introduces you to the concept of software. There are three key objectives. At the end of this session, you will be able to:
 Explain the concept of software.
 List the three types of software:
a) System software
b) Application software
c) Utility software
 Explain the concept of an operating system.
Real World Example(s)
You will understand the importance of software with the below example:
• As human beings, we all have varied interests and needs. So, technology has created different types of computers to perform different functions.
• Some computer technologies are commonly used by everybody, whereas others are used only by those people who have specific interest in it.
• Example: Voice Synthesizer is a technology that is developed specially to help the visually impaired communicate with the computer.
Concept Explanation
a) Program:
Meaning of a program:
• A program is a set of instructions written in a specific order. It is commonly known as software.
• A computer software is a set of programs that controls the hardware. It allows the user to work on the computer.
• A program can be compared to a recipe where step-by-step instructions have to be followed to prepare a dish. If we change the order of these steps, we might spoil the dish.
• Software contains instructions that tell the computer how to function.
• Software cannot be touched or felt.

b) Types of Software:
There are three types of software as listed below:
• System software: System software manages all the programs on the computer.
Example: Operating systems like DOS, Windows, UNIX, and Linux.

• Application software: Application software is used to perform a task.
Example: Microsoft Word is an application that is used to write text and Excel is an application that is used in accounting.

• Utility software: Utility software is used to manage a device.
Example: There is utility software to manage printers, software to manage the hard drive, and so on.

c) Operating System:
An operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer.
The operating system is needed to:
• Run other programs.
• Recognise input from the keyboard.
• Send output to the display screen.
• Keep track of files in our computer.
• Control devices like the printer, scanner, disk drives, etc.

There are different operating systems available. Some examples are Windows, UNIX, Linux and Mac. Windows is the most popular of all. Voice Synthesiser JAWS supports Windows.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the following concepts:
a) What is a program?
b) Application software controls all other programs on the computer. State whether true or false?
c) What are the different types of software?
d) What does an Operating System do?
Summary and Takeaway
• We have learnt that computer software contains instructions that tell the computer how to function.
• Operating systems are the most important program in our computers. They run all other programs.
• Utility software manages devices like the printer, hard drive, and so on.
• A program is a set of instructions written in a specific order. It is commonly known as software.
• Application software is used to perform a task.
• The three types of software are System software, application software and utility software.
• An Operating System recognizes input from the keyboard, sends output to the display screen, keeps track of files in our computer, controls devices like the printer, scanner, mouse, etc.

Introduction to Computer Devices

This topic will introduce you to the concept of Computer devices. There are two key objectives. At the end of this session, you will be able to:
• Explain the concepts of hardware, input and output devices.
• Explain how Central Processing Unit (CPU) works.
• Explain what are the different computer devices such monitor, mouse keyboard etc.
Concept Explanation
a) Hardware:
The computer hardware devices are the physical parts of the computer that can be seen and felt.
The following are the examples of hardware devices:

• Mouse – It is a pointer device that helps us navigate and give inputs to the computer.
• Keyboard – It is an input device. It has alphabets and numeric keys through which we give inputs to the computer.
• Monitor – It is the device that displays the result as output when we give input commands to the computer.
• Speakers – It is a device that produces audio output.
• Microphone – It is a device that allows us to record the sound.

The computer hardware is basically categorised into 4 types. They are, input devices, output devices, storage devices and central processing unit (CPU).

b) Input Devices:
Input devices are hardware that is used to provide inputs and also control the commands given to the computer.
The input devices are as follows:
• Mouse
• Keyboard
• Microphone

c) Central Processing Unit (CPU):
CPU is the area of the computer where the entire processing of the data based on the commands given takes place.

d) Output Devices:
Output devices are the parts of the computer that communicate the output or result of a command given to the computer by the user.
Example: We input two numbers to perform addition:
I. The result of the addition is displayed on the monitor or screen.
II. So, the monitor is an output device that communicates the results that the computer has performed.
III. The output devices are as follows:
• Monitor
• Printer
• Headphones – It is a device that plays sound files for us to listen to.
• Speakers
Tactile Examples
Get introduced to the computer devices:
• CPU: CPU is the area of the computer where the entire processing of the data based on the commands given takes place. CPU is a vertical or horizontal box on which contains buttons to turn on or off.
• Monitor: Monitor is a device which gives output of what is going on in the computer. A monitor looks like a TV.
• Keyboard: Keyboard helps the user to give the commands as input to the computer to perform a task. Keyboard contains lot of keys for alphabets, numbers, punctuations and special characters etc.
• Mouse: Mouse is a device through which a sighted computer user gives commands to the computer through the mouse click.
• Speakers: Speakers are the device through which we can get voice output from the computer.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure that you have understood the concepts:
a) The remote control of a television is an output device. State True or False.
b) What is computer hardware? Give two examples.
c) CPU does the processing of all our inputs. State True or False.
Summary and Takeaway
• We learnt that hardware is the physical part of the computer that we can see and touch.
• Input devices are those devices that we use to send information into the computer.
• CPU processes our inputs.
• Output devices are hardware that communicates the results of a function that the computer has performed.
• The remote control is an example of an input device.
• Hardware is the physical parts of the computer that can be seen and touched. Example: Mouse, Keyboard, CPU and Monitor.
• CPU processes the inputs given by the user and gives the output on the monitor or a speaker.
Points to Remember
Below are the key areas you need to focus while learning this topic.
• Are you able to remember the names of different computer devices by relating to what you have touch and felt in the previous session?

Advantages of Computers

This topic will introduce you to the advantages of a computer. There are three key objectives. At the end of this session, you will understand:
• Advantages of using computers.
• Concept of a voice synthesizer.
• Advantages of using a computer with a voice synthesizer.
• The arrangements of keys on a keyboard.
Concept Explanation
1. The advantages of computers are as follows:
a) Computers improve the speed of our work. Let us understand from the below example:
• Add two plus two.
• Now add 36 plus 48. Since these numbers are bigger than previous, you take that extra time to add.
Although our brain does the same job, the computer does it faster. It does the same calculation in lesser time. So, computers make our work easier and faster.

b) Computers have large storage capacity.
• Add 456 and 24. Since the numbers are bigger you will take more time to remember
Although our brains have the capacity to remember small things, it is hard to remember large amount of information. Computers have larger storage capacity when compared to our brain. This storage in a computer is called “memory”.
• We can store huge amounts of data on computer in a limited space.
• Retrieval of the data stored on the computer is much easier.

c) Computers are always accurate.
• Our brain can make calculation errors but the computer is very accurate in its calculations.

d) Computers can work continuously for long hours and still be accurate.
• Computer works with the same level of attention over long periods of time, whereas humans can get tired and make mistakes.
• Example: If we have to do the accounts for a large company we can use computers because it works for many hours with the same accuracy whereas, we will get tired if we have to work for long hours.

e) Computers do more than just perform difficult calculations; they also serve many different purposes.
• We can listen to songs, write letters, speak to people, maintain a diary, write notes and so on.
2. Voice Synthesiser:
• Voice synthesiser is a technology that artificially produces human speech.
• The voice synthesiser converts any text on the screen to voice, which helps us know what action we are performing on the monitor screen.

3. Advantages of a Computer with a Voice Synthesiser:
 Voice synthesisers are very useful when it comes to writing letters. The receiver of the letter does not have to know how to use Braille script in order to read it.
 The voice synthesiser helps us by spelling out the words while we are typing. This keeps a check on typing mistakes.
 Voice synthesisers have opened up job opportunities for visually impaired as most companies use computers these days.
 Since the newspaper is not accessible for visually impaired (like Braille or large font), we cannot read it. But, it is possible to read the newspaper through the computer as the voice synthesiser will read out the words.
 We can use the computer to write letters instantly to people anywhere in the world.
 We can also find information on any subject by using the computer.
Practical Example[s]
Demonstration of the concept
Touch and feel the keyboard
• Keyboard looks like a typewriter
• The keyboard is divided into three parts:
a) The alpha-numeric keypad,
b) The cursor control pad,
c) The numeric pad
Instructions for practice
Note: This is to include a note to the students if any
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure that you have understood the concepts:
a) If I had given the computer two numbers to add, then are they input, processing, output, or memory action?
b) When the computer is adding the given numbers, is it an input, processing, output, or memory action?

c) When the computer displays the added number on the monitor screen, is it an input, processing, output, or memory action?

d) When the computer saves the added number; is it an input, processing, output, or memory action?
Summary and Takeaway
• We have learnt that computers can work continuously for long hours and still be accurate.
• Computers improve the speed of our work.
• A voice synthesizer is a technology that artificially produces human speech.
• The voice synthesizer helps us by spelling out the words while we are typing. This keeps a check on typing mistakes.
• The keyboard is divided into three parts: the alpha-numeric keypad, the cursor control pad, and the numeric pad.
• If you have given the computer two numbers to add, then it is input action.
• When the computer is adding the given numbers, then it is processing action.
• When the computer displays the added number on the monitor screen, then it is output action.
• When the computer saves the added number, then it is memory action.