Battle of Buxar (1764)

Mir Qasim was an efficient administrator. In the beginning he remained loyal to the company. He paid two lakh pounds to the company and gave away few places to it. Shortly, he declared himself as an independent King. After verifying the misuse of Dastakaths, he declared that the business is duty free in Bengal. As a result, the Indians competed against British in all spheres of business. As a result, the British trade suffered considerably. This was enough for the British to oppose the Nawab. They brought in Mir Jaffar again and dethroned Mir Qasim. As Mir Qasim knew about the cunningness of the British, he went for an organized war against them. He was supported by the Indian merchants and artisans. Mir Qasim entered into agreements with the Mughal ruler Sha Alam-II and Nawab of Awadh ‘Shuj-ud-daul’. The combined forces of Mir Qasim faced the British army led by Hector Munro at Buxar in 1764. Mir Qasim got defeated and ran away from the battle field. Sha Alam-II surrendered. The efforts of the combined forces to stop the British force failed completely.
1. Sha Alam-II accorded the Dewani rights over Bengal to the British.
2. Sha Alam-II gave away all the rights over Bengal to the British for an annual fee of rupees 26 lakhs.
3. The Nawab of Awadh had to give away a fine of rupees 50 lakh for waging a war against the company.
4. With the death of Mir Jaffar, the company paid pension to his son and took over the entire administration of Bengal.
Know this:Dewani Rights: The right to collect land taxes
The Buxar battle made the British as the real holders of power over Bihar, Bengal and Odisha provinces. Even Awadh remained under their control. In 1765, Robert Clive brought in ‘Dual-government’ concept. As per this concept, the British had the right to collect land taxes, whereas the Nawab had power over administrative issues like justice and others. Like this, the British gained political control over India to protect their business interest.
Know this:
In 1600 – The East India Company was established
In 1602 – United East India Company was established in Netherlands
In 1619 – The Mughal emperor Jahangir issued royal charter allowing the British to conduct trade in Surat, on the west coast and in
Hugli, on the east coast.
In 1639 – The English established their first warehouse in Madrass
In 1664 – French East India Company was established in France.

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