With success of Portuguese, many Dutch, French and English arrived at India for trade. This development not only changed the history of India, it also changed the history of European countries.
Portuguese were the first to arrive at India for the trade and were also the last to leave India on the sea route. After Vasco da Gama, Francisco de Almeida arrived in India as the Viceroy of Portuguese. He implemented ‘Blue Water Policy’ in order to establish the supremacy over the Sea instead of supremacy over lands. Alfonso de Albuquerque, who came after Almeida, is considered as the real founder of Portuguese Empire in India. He waged a battle against the Sultan of Bijapur in 1510 and won Goa. Goa became the administrative centre of Portuguese administration in India. The Portuguese had absolute monopoly over trade with India for almost a century and their power declined with the arrival of English and French in India.
Dutch are from Holland or Netherlands. They established United East India Company in 1602 with the aim of doing business with eastern countries and entered countries like India, Java, Sumatra, Indonesia and spices rich islands. They established warehouses in Surat, Broach, Kambe, Kochin, Nagapatanim, Masulipatanam and Chinsor and other places in India. With this they broke the monopoly of Portuguese in India. Later, unable to face competition from English and French, Dutch limited themselves to Spice rich Islands.
The Warehouses were the places of storing merchandise. Huge walls were built around these warehouses to provide protection.
In 1600, December 31, Queen Elizabeth issued a royal charter authorizing East India Company to trade with Eastern Countries for fifteen years. The company started the business formally in 1613. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir issued a royal permission to English to establish their first warehouse of factory at Surat. In 1617, Sir Thomas Roe arrived at the court of Jahangir as the royal ambassador from the court of James I. He sought permission from Jahangir to establish factories in other places of Mughal Empire. English established factories in Agra, Ahamadabad and Broach. In 1639, English took Madras from the King of Chandragiri and established a strong fort named St. George Fort. Later, Charles II, the Prince of England, gave Bombay as an annual rent of ten pounds a year to East India Company in 1668. In 1690, the English purchased three villages namely Sutanauti, Kalikata and Govindapura on the banks of Hugli River and built Fort William. The city of Calcutta grew around this fort. By 17th century, the English had established Bombay, Madras and Calcutta as the centers of their Presidencies. By the later part of Eighteenth century, the English made Calcutta as their capital city. They implemented their own Civil and Criminal Procedure Codes in the areas that were under their control.
French East India Company started as a government owned company in 1664. It started its first factory in Surat in the year 1668. Later they established its factories in Machalipatanam, Chandranagara, Mahe, Karaikallu, Cossimbazar, Balasur. In 1674, the French took Valikandapuram from a local Muslim official and developed it as a major trade center. That center is Puducheri or Pondichery. Dupleix, who arrived in Pondicherry as the Governor General of French had the high ambitions of establishing French as the major power in South India. This ambition led to Carnatic wars with the English.