The trade and commerce relationship India had with Europeans
The arrival of Europeans to India for trade
The Carnatic wars in the backdrop of European political developments.
Battle of Plassey, Battle of Buxar and Dual-Government system
The British policy of aggression
There were trade and commerce relationship between India and Europe since ancient times. There was great demand for Indian spices like Pepper, Cardamom, Ginger and many other spices in Europe. The trade relationship continued between India, Europe and other Asian countries even during middle ages.
The Arab merchants carried the Asian merchandise into Constantinople of Eastern Roman (Byzantium) Empire. Italian merchants would buy these goods and then sell in European countries. Like this, Constantinople was the center of international business and considered as the ‘Gate of European Trade’. While Arab merchants had gained monopoly over the trade in Asian countries, Italian traders had gained monopoly over trade in Europe. The merchandise from Asia had brought good profits to Italian merchants.
The fall of Constantinople: The trade and commerce between Asia and Europe was taking place through the city of Constantinople. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks captured the city of Constantinople. As a result, all the trade routes connecting the city of Constantinople came under the control of Turks. The Turks started levying too many taxes on the goods passing through these routes. As a result, the merchants felt that the trade was not profitable. Meanwhile, Spain and Portugal were attempting to break the monopoly of Italian traders. They started encouraging courageous sailors to find a sea route to India.
The invention of Compass, Astrolabes, and Gunpowder provided further impetus to this venture.