Creating Email Account

This topic will introduce you to the concept of creating an email account. After going through this topic, you will be able to:
• Understand the layout of online forms
• Fill online forms
• Create email account
• Start using their email account
Concept Explanation
• All communication takes place through email nowadays. Having an email account has become necessary. Moreover a visually impaired person can read his or her own emails using NVDA screen reader software. He or she need not depend on anybody else to read letters for them.
• There are various email service providers like Gmail, Rediff, Yahoo etc. We will see the steps to create a gmail account since it’s a popular service provider. Gmail is the short form for Google mail.
• To create an email account in gmail, you need to fill in an online form that is available on https://accounts.google.com/SignUp. This is like any other form that you saw in the other websites.
• You need to type your personal details like name, address, mobile number etc. in the form.
• For some security reasons, Gmail has a few steps to verify your identity. Let us see the demo of how to create a gmail account.
Practical Example
Follow the instructions given below to show a demo of creating an email account on gmail.
• Open the website www.gmail.com through Internet explorer. Check the title by pressing the command Insert + T.
• What is the title NVDA announced? Answer: Gmail, Internet Explorer.
• Use the down arrow to go through this page and understand the webpage. Let the candidates hear what NVDA reads.
Note: Google keeps changing its user interface from time to time. So there may be some difference in the site when you are checking and what is shown in this demo.
• Keep pressing the down arrow. NVDA reads headings like “One account, all of Google”, “sign in to continue to Gmail”. Pay attention to what else NVDA reads. Answer: Edit email, password, sign in button.
• Use the down arrow till you hear “link create an account”. You want to create an account, so hit the space bar on this link. NVDA announces the new webpage as “Google accounts”.
• Let us see what this webpage contains and press down arrow again. NVDA reads “Create your google account”.
• Press down arrow again. NVDA says “Name”. Press down arrow. NVDA says “edit first”, on pressing down arrow again NVDA says “edit last”. This means Name of the control is “name” and the type of control is edit box. There are two edit boxes under Name: First name and Last name. Let’s check this again.
• Type a name in the name edit box. You can type only if the forms mode is activated. How do you activate the forms mode? Answer: Press space bar to put on the forms mode. When you press the space bar, there will be a beep sound. Type “Srinivas” in the first name edit box, then press escape to come out of the edit box (there will be another beep sound).
• Press tab to go to the last name edit box, press the space bar, type ‘Laxman’, press escape key to come out of the edit box (there will be another beep sound).
• Let’s now see what other controls are there. Press tab. What does NVDA announce? Answer: “Choose your username”. A username is your identity online. Mails sent by you will have your username.
• What does this mean? Answer: This means we have to give a name that you want to use for your email. For example, we have given the name as Srinivas Laxman. You may want the same name as user name. This will read as srinivaslaxman@gmail.com.
• But this name is very common and you may not get the same user name. If you press tab, NVDA will read out if the name is already taken or not. The user name has to be unique, so we need to try different names so that it is unique.
• Press tab to get suggestions from Google. Choose one of the names that Google suggests. Press tab and type a name in the username edit box and press tab.
Note: You may have to navigate up and down to get the right user name depending on the availability of the user name.
• Hear what NVDA says. Answer: Create a password. Type a password here. Type “enable123”. Note that NVDA says “star, star, star” when you type the password even when you type different alphabets or numbers. This is for protecting the password. Press tab.
• What does NVDA say? Answer: Confirm your password. You need to type your password here again to confirm it. Type “enable123”. You need to remember this password exactly. Any small mistake in typing the password will not allow you to open your gmail account. It is like the key to open the lock for entering your home. Press tab.
• What does NVDA say? Answer: NVDA says “Birthday”. Press tab. NVDA says “menu button month”. Press insert + space bar, select the appropriate month by using the up and down arrow. Press enter to choose a month. Press tab and enter the date. Press tab again and enter the year.
• Press tab. What does NVDA say? Answer: Gender menu button. Press insert + space bar; select the gender by using the up and down arrow. Press enter to choose the gender.
• Explore the rest of the controls by yourself. The other controls are Mobile phone, your current email address, skip this verification, location, I agree and the next step button.
• Select the “skip this verification” check box by pressing the space bar. Make sure you skip the verification steps.
Note:
If you do not check the “skip this verification” option, then you need to press tab till NVDA says “Get an audio challenge”. Press enter. This will play a sound with different voices announcing numbers and alphabets. Type what you hear in the “type the text” edit box.
• After completing all the fields, press the next step button. Hear what NVDA says. NVDA reads “heading level 1 verify your account”. Use tab and hear what NVDA says.
• By default the mobile number that you have given in the first page will already be there under Phone number edit box.
• When NVDA reads “How should we send you codes”, use tab or shift + tab to hear what NVDA says. Answer: NVDA reads radio button checked text message (SMS). Press tab. NVDA reads radio button unchecked voice call. What does this mean?
• Email service providers verify or check the information you have given. So depending on what you choose, they send you a message (sms, default) or call you on the mobile number you have given. This is done to make sure you have given a valid number.
• Press tab and press continue button. NVDA reads “Enter verification code”. The focus will be on the edit box where you have to type the verification code that was sent to your mobile number. Type in the number and press “continue”.
• The page that comes up shows you how your profile will appear on Google +. More about this later. Press “Next step”.
• The Welcome page comes up. Press insert + T to hear the title of the page. Press tab. Let them hear NVDA say “Welcome, Your new email address is srinivaslaxman4.gmail.com”. So you have now created an email ID for yourself. Congratulations!
• Press tab until NVDA reads “Get started button” or “continue to gmail”. Press this button.
Note: After you press the Get started button, NVDA reads the Personal Info – Accounts settings page. You need not go through the entire page.
• Hear what NVDA says. It announces collapsed sub menu link and reads out the newly created email ID. Press the space bar. NVDA reads the sub menu link as expanded now.
• Use the down arrow to check the expanded menu. Hear what NVDA says.
• Use the up and down arrow. NVDA reads out your user name, your email ID, a few links. Pay attention to the last link “Sign out” and press the space bar when NVDA announces sign out.
• Exactly like you will lock your house when you go out, now you have to come out or sign out of your account.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What is an email account? Why should we create one?
Answer:
b) Who are the service providers for email? Name a few.
Answer:
c) What do you need to do to open a gmail account? Name the URL where the form is available.
Answer:
d) Why is it important to remember your user name and password?
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• Email account means electronic mail account. Most communication now happens through email, not through hand written letters. The visually impaired can read their own emails by using screen reader software. This way they are not dependent on others to read their mail.
• Service providers like Google, Rediff, Yahoo provide free email services to users for non-commercial activities.
• We need to fill a form with our personal details to open a gmail account. This form is available in https://accounts.google.com/SignUp.
• When you create an email account, you have to choose a user name and password. A username is your identity online. Mails sent by you will have your username. To log into our email account, you need to remember the user name and password. It’s like the lock and key to your home.
• We also need to give other personal details like first name, last name, phone number, date of birth, country. There are a few verification steps that you need to fulfil to prove to the service provider that you are a real user.
• Once you have created a gmail account, go to http://mail.google.com/ and log into your account by using your username and password.
Points to Remember
Make sure you are aware of these key areas and mistakes while learning this concept:
• You may get confused by the various steps to create an email ID. You may need help individually. Ask your trainer for help.
• When forms mode is on, make sure you are navigating between various elements correctly. Pay attention when you use dropdown options and check if you have selected an option from the dropdown. Many times you may just navigate up and down and forget to activate a dropdown option.

Introduction to Email

This topic will introduce you to the concept of electronic mail. At the end of this session, you will be able to understand:
• What is E-mail
• Advantages of E-mailing
• Introduction to E-mail service provider
• How E-mail works
Real World Examples
Example 1
• Chetan is visually impaired and he got his appointment letter from a bank with details about his joining date, salary etc. through post.
• Since the letter was in hard copy, he could not read the letter. He was also down with fever and severe cough when the letter came. He could not meet his friends or family due to his illness and could not get the letter read. The postman was also in a hurry to deliver other letters and therefore could not read the letter to Chetan.
• After one week his friend came and read the appointment letter to Chetan. They realized that Chetan had to join the bank three days back. Chetan gets tense and is scared that he will lose this job. He also feels sad that he is still dependent on others for some things.
• Chetan went to bank and talked to the HR about the joining date. The HR told Chetan that they had also sent an e-mail to him. Chetan told them that he does not know how to read emails since he is visually impaired.
• The HR person asks Chetan – if you do not learn E-mail then how will you work? Chetan apologizes and requests the HR to re-consider his joining date. He also promises the HR that he will learn to email before joining the bank to work efficiently.
• In two days Chetan learns to read and write emails from his visually impaired friends, joins the bank and is able to answer customer queries using emails.
Concept Explanation
• Do you have an idea of what is Email and uses of Email? List some features of email, service providers’ names and how email works.
• Names of a few E-mail service providers are Gmail.com, Yahoo.com. You may have heard these names on the television and radio shows, from your friends and family.
• Earlier letters were a popular channel for communication. All written communication was done by writing letters and sending it by post. Letters were the popular communication channel for individuals, companies, government offices, educational institutions etc.
• Telephone services were expensive and not had access to telephones too. Mobiles did not exist in those times.
• But now, letters are not the popular communication channel because letters take too much time to reach a person. A letter used to take 5 to 7 days to reach a place. There were even funny incidents like wedding invitations reaching after the wedding was over! If one letter has to be sent to 100 people, you had to write each person’s address separately, paste stamps and post the letters. So it was a lot of time and effort.
• Now let us learn what email is. Email stands for electronic mail. This means instead of using pen and paper to write a letter, you can send the letter/mail electronically, using a computer and keyboard to type. You can also send the same message to many people at once.
Features/Advantages of Email
Let us now see the main features and advantages of Email.
• Fast: Email can reach the person you are writing to in seconds. There is no need to fix a stamp and post in a post box.
• Global reach: Email can be sent to anyone with an email ID, anywhere in the world.
• Reply/forward feature: You can reply to an email and forward the same email to others in minutes just like we do on the mobile.
• Send Attachments: If you want to send a birthday gift to your friend, you send it through courier along with a card or letter, right? Similarly, you can attach pictures, audio files, video files along with your email and send it to family or friends anywhere in the world.
• Other Features: If you are travelling or are sick, you can set an auto reply message to let your colleagues in the company know your status. Another good feature is that you can fix your signature for all mails. There is no need to write the same things again and again in email, like we used to on paper. You can write a single mail and send it to many people at once.

More Details on Email
• You need a browser and a service provider to create an Email account. Some email service providers are Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo.
• Just like we have mobile service providers who provide connections for our mobiles, these service provider provide Email services.
• Just like we cannot make a call without a sim card we cannot send or receive emails without installing an email service.
• You may know that before mobile service providers give sim card and number, we need to register some personal details with them like name, age, and address proof with some other documents. Similarly to get email service from the service provider, we need to fill a soft copy form, we have to subscribe to their service. We need to only create an email account to start using it.
• There are commercial and non-commercial service providers. When we pay for the service, it is commercial, and there will be no advertisements. For non-commercial use, we can use non-paid service. Advertisements will be there in this case since the service is free. We will see more about this later.
• You can go to the website of the service provider like Yahoo or Rediff. These service providers provide news along with email service on their websites. They may also provide chatting service. We will look at this in future sessions.
Check your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What is email? What are its important features?
Answer:
b) What is the greatest advantage of using email?
Answer:
c) Name a few email service providers.
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• We didn’t have mobiles or telephones to convey messages quickly, so we depended heavily on postal letters. Letters were the popular communication channel for individuals, companies, government offices, educational institutions etc.
• Email stands for electronic mail. This means instead of using pen and paper to write a letter, you are going to send the letter/mail electronically, using a computer and keyboard to type. You can also send the same message to many people at once.
• The main features and advantages of Email include:
o Fast: Email can reach the person you are writing to in seconds. There is no need to fix a stamp and post in a post box.
o Global reach: Email can be sent to anyone with an email ID, anywhere in the world.
o Reply/forward feature: You can reply to an email and forward the same email to others in minutes with a click of a button.
o Send Attachments: If you want to send a birthday gift to your friend, you send it through courier along with a card or letter, right? Similarly, you can attach pictures, audio files, video files along with your email and send it to family or friends anywhere in the world.
o Other Features: You can set an auto reply message if you are out of town or if you cannot check your mails for some time. Another good feature is that you can fix your signature for all mails. There is no need to write the same things again and again in email, like we used to on paper. You can write a single mail and send it to many people at once.
• We need a browser and a service provider to create an Email account. To get email service from the service provider, we need to fill a soft copy form, and need to subscribe to their service. We need to only create an email account to start using it.
• There are commercial and non-commercial service providers. When we pay for the service, it is commercial, and there will be no advertisements. For non-commercial use, we can use non-paid service. Advertisements will be there in this case since the service is free. We will see more about this later.
• We can go to the website of service providers like Yahoo or Rediff. These service providers provide news along with email service on their websites. They may also provide chatting service.
Points to Remember
Make sure you focus on some key areas while learning this concept:
• Make sure you understand the email concept. This will enable you to read letters independently.
• Don’t try to learn too much about protocols and service providers. Just understand the main features and advantages of using email.

Introduction to form fields

This topic will introduce you to the concept of form fields, forms mode, and browse mode.
After going through this topic, you will be able to:
• Understand different form fields of a browser
• Understand browse mode and Forms mode
• Use the form fields with efficiency
Concept Explanation
• You may have to apply for different services online. For example: creating an email account, booking flight, train, bus tickets, ordering products online, applying for jobs etc.
• There are web based application forms to apply for these services. Web based application forms use various elements known as form fields.
• These elements are similar to the dialog box controls. The elements we usually find on a web page are:
o Edit field where we can type text.
o Combo, spin and list through which we select options. These elements are also known as drop down list.
o Checkboxes through which we can select multiple options on the form. For example, radio buttons through which you can select 1 out of multiple options.
o Sliders through which we can select percentage, mostly used in selecting the volume level on online audio or video players.
o Buttons: mostly used to submit the form.
• We can find only the elements which are needed for the particular form. We cannot see all the form fields on all the forms.
Browse Mode
• Web pages display information in read mode or browse mode. This means that we can read the information on the web pages, but cannot make changes to the web page.
• We can just see what is there on the web page but cannot write on the web page. By default webpages are in browse mode.
• To enter details in a webpage, we need to change NVDA to forms mode.
Forms mode
• The forms mode is an option which helps in filling a form on the web page.
• NVDA will not allow anything to be typed in the edit or to select anything from the combo, spin or a list box (drop down lists) when the page is in browse mode.
• Changing from browse mode to forms mode, will make the field on which the focus is there editable. So now you can type in the edit box or select from the drop down if the focus is there.
• First you need to bring the focus to the element in which you want to perform an action, like an edit field or a dropdown. Then you need to put on the forms mode.
• Once you are done with typing in the edit field or selecting from the drop down list, you need to put the forms mode off.
• The command to put on forms mode is insert + space bar when the focus is there on the element. You need to press escape to come out of forms mode or enter browse mode, once the work (typing in the edit or selecting from the dropdown) is done.
Practical Demonstration
Follow the instructions given below to understand how to fill online forms:
• Open the “Sample Call Tracking System” form of freedom scientific. Use this path to open the file: c:\computer training\environment files\internet\sample call tracking system.htm
• You will be using this form just for practice; changes made in this form will not affect anything.
• Go through the page from top to bottom. Try and update the details in different fields.
Understand the Edit field by answering the following questions:
• What is the first field? Answer: Edit field
• What do you need to write in this edit? Answer: Name
• How will you know what you need to write in the edit field?
Answer: Press up arrow key. NVDA reads the name of the field. In this case it is Name. So now you know you must type in your name here.
• In some forms these elements will be marked with asterisk (Star symbol) which indicates that this field is mandatory, which means it has to be filled and cannot be left blank.
• Now move to another field. Press down arrow till you get another field. Stop pressing down arrow once the focus reaches another field. Understand this field by answering the following questions:
• What kind of element is it? Answer: Edit field.
• What needs to be written in this edit field? Answer: Phone number.
• Go through the other 2 edit fields. Press down arrow key and figure out what is the element NVDA announced after the edit field? Answer: button.
• How many buttons are there after the edit field? Answer: 2 buttons.
• What label is given for both the buttons? What is the use of these buttons?
Answer: the buttons are labelled as mailing address and billing address. They will bring up additional options if activated in which you can write mailing and billing address.
• Keep pressing down arrow till the focus reaches list. What did NVDA announce? Answer: list.
• What is the use of the list in this form? Answer: You can select the ordered products.
• How will you select the product from the list? Answer: Steps are:
1. Take the focus to the list.
2. Press insert + space bar to put the forms mode on.
3. Use up and down arrow keys and select one of the options.
4. Press escape key to come out of forms mode, into browse mode.
• Select one of the options from the list by selecting one of the products from the list box.
• Press down arrow key till you get the next element. What is this element? Answer: set of radio buttons.
• What is the use of these radio buttons on this form?
Answer: The radio buttons will help in selecting the warranty status of the chosen product. That is, does the product selected from the list box have Warranty or not? The options are “Yes” radio button and “No” radio button.
• To check the radio button you want to select, take the focus to that radio button and press space bar to check it.
• There is no need to put the forms mode on to select a radio button or a check box. You need to only take the focus to the radio button or check box and press the space bar to activate.
• Press down arrow key till you get another element, what is the next element? Answer: Edit. Keep pressing down arrow key till the focus reaches the next element.
• What is the element NVDA announced? Answer: Checkboxes.
• What is the use of these checkboxes in this form? Answer: In what way the customer would like to get promotions of the product.
• Radio buttons and checkboxes will be found in a group. Radio buttons help in selecting only one of the options. Once a radio button is selected from the group of radio buttons, the other radio buttons in the group will get unselected.
• Checkboxes are used to select multiple options: you can check more than one checkbox depending on your requirement.
• Press down arrow. What is the last element in this form? Answer: button.
• What is the use of this button? Answer: to submit the form.
Check your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What is the use of online forms?
Answer:
b) What are all the elements the online forms contain?
Answer:
c) What is the other name for the elements of online forms?
Answer:
d) Why do we need put the forms mode on and off?
Answer:
e) How does the browse mode help while working with web pages?
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• We may have to apply online for many services such as creating an email account, booking flight, train, bus tickets, ordering products online, applying for jobs etc.
• We may have to fill online forms to opt for these services.
• The online forms uses form fields for filling the online form, these are also known as web page elements.
• We may find the following elements in online forms:
o Edit field, combo, list or spin box which are also known as drop down list, radio buttons, check boxes, sliders and buttons.
• These form fields helps a user in typing information, selecting options on the online forms.
• A user can type the information in the edit box or select an option using Combo, list, spin box or radio buttons. Sighted refer to combo boxes as drop down options.
• Check boxes are used to select multiple options.
• Sliders can be used to select the percentage. This can be useful while playing audio or video files through online players.
• Buttons are used to submit a form or to activate some options or features on the web page.
• A Screen reader user needs to put on the forms mode to type in the edit box and select from drop down lists.
• A Screen reader user needs to put off the forms mode to come out of the field.
• There is no need to put on the forms mode to select options using radio buttons and check boxes.
• Buttons on the web page can be activated without putting the forms mode on.
Browse Mode and forms mode
• Web pages display information in read mode or browse mode. This means that we can read the information on the web pages, but cannot make changes to the web page.
• We can just see what is there on the web page but cannot write on the web page. By default webpages are in browse mode.
• To enter details in a webpage, we need to change NVDA to forms mode.
• Example: if we type “R” when forms mode is off, the focus will jump to radio button if radio button is there on the page. This option helps us in quickly taking the focus to a location.
Shortcut keys
We can use the following commands to jump the focus to particular elements on the web page are:
Note: these commands will work only when the webpage is in browse mode.
Command Description
E Moves between edit fields on the web page
C Moves between combo boxes on the web page
F Moves between all the form fields on the web page
G Moves between graphics available on the web page
H Moves between headings on the web page
K Moves between links on the web page
L Moves between list boxes on the web pages
X Moves between check boxes on the web pages
B Moves between buttons on the web pages
T Moves between tables on the web page
U Moves between unvisited links on the web pages
V Moves between visited links on the web pages
Points to Remember
The goal of this section is to focus on some key areas while learning this concept:
• You may try to type or select from the drop down by mistake without putting on the forms mode and may get confused why you are not able to type or select anything.
• You may put on the forms mode and press down arrow to navigate through the page. Focus will not move if the forms mode is on.
• In some web pages, when the page loads, the forms mode gets automatically on when the focus goes to edit field. This may be confusing.
• When forms mode is on, make sure you are navigating between various elements correctly. Pay attention when you use dropdown options and check if you have selected an option from the dropdown. Many times you may just navigate up and down and forget to activate a dropdown option.

Introduction to Notification bar and Downloading

This topic will introduce you to the concept of Notification bar of Internet Explorer and downloading the files from internet. After going through this topic, you will be able to:
• Understand Notification bar and its usage.
• Understand how to access Notification bar and its options.
• Understand downloading from the internet
• Download data from the internet with efficiency
Concept Explanation
Understand the following points regarding Notification bar:
• The alert Notification bar is a new feature added to Internet Explorer 9. It is a gold and white bar and is located at the bottom of a webpage where Internet Explorer displays information about the status of your browser, webpage or a download. It provides you with some options using which you can take actions like open or save.
• The Alert Notification bar displays notifications or questions asked by Internet Explorer such as do you want to save the password; the web page has closed unexpectedly, would you like to restore the previously opened page, a warning message about a virus etc.
• In previous versions, these notifications were displayed through dialog box. These dialog boxes were interrupting the user while working on the internet. Each time these dialog boxes come up, the user had to answer the dialog box and only then the user was able to go ahead with browsing.
• In the latest version (Internet explorer 9), the Alert Notification bar is introduced to display these kinds of information through Notification. The user can go ahead with browsing without answering the notifications, if he or she doesn’t want to answer at that point.
• In Internet Explorer 9, the option of downloading from the internet is also included in Notification bar.
Steps to download files from the internet through notification bar:
• Hit enter on the download option on the web page and wait till NVDA asks “do you want to download” and the file name.
• Press Alt + N to take the focus to the alert notification bar. This is a dialog box and by default the focus will be on the first dialog box control that is open or run button.
• Press tab once: NVDA will read the option as “save split button”.
• Again press tab. NVDA reads “close button”. Don’t press tab after you hear the close button because this will take the focus out of the alert notification bar to the address bar.
• If you want to save the file, use shift+ tab to go to the save split button.
• Use up and down arrow keys on the save button. You can find options such as save, save as etc.
• Select one of the options under the save split button and hit enter to activate the option. You can use ‘save’ to save the file in the default location (my documents> downloads). You can select save as if you want to save in a different location.
• If you select save, the file will be saved without any more questions coming up. You will get a save as dialog if you hit enter on the option save as.
• You can save the file in a different location by using the save as dialog.
• Press Control + J to bring the view downloads dialog. Use the up and down navigation arrows to select the file you just downloaded and hit enter to open the file.
Practical Demonstration
Follow the instructions given below to see how to download files from internet.
• Let us do a demo of how to download files from the internet through the Notification bar. Let us download NVDA.
• Type the URL “www.nvaccess.org” in the address bar of Internet Explorer. The NV access website opens. Let us go through the page to understand the page and the various options to download NVDA.
• Go through the page and pay attention to the page structure. Through which option can we download NVDA? Answer: By activating download button.
• Press the single letter navigation key B to move the focus to the download button and press the single letter navigation key “B”. What did NVDA announce? Answer: download button.
• Press space bar to activate the download button. The focus will be taken to the download page. Go through the download page quickly.
• What options related to download are there in the page? Answer: Options for donation and link skip donation and download.
• We can use the option “downloading by giving donation” if we want to give donation for NVDA development to NV access or we can go ahead with the link “skip donation and download”.
• Activate the link skip donation and download. The focus moves to another page, download should start and NVDA should announce “alert notification bar do you want to download NVDA? Press alt N to access Notification bar”.
• Press the command “Alt + N” to take the focus to Notification bar. What did NVDA announce? Answer: Open button. The focus will be there on open button as we press the command alt + N.
• We need to press tab once to move the focus to save split button and press down arrow key to get the save options. Press tab once. What did NVDA announce? Answer: Save split button.
• Press the down arrow key to get the save options. You can select save if you want to save the file in the default location. You can select save as if you want to save the file in different locations.
• Select save as by pressing down arrow key till you get save as and hit enter on the save as option to activate.
• What happens once you hit enter on save as? Answer: Save as dialog opens. Check the title to confirm that save as is open.
• Save the file in a different location by using the save as dialog and check the installation file once it is saved.
Review and Reflect
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What is the use of the Alert Notification bar?
Answer:
b) What is the command to take the focus to notification bar?
Answer:
c) How do we save the file in different location by using Notification bar?
Answer:
Verbal Instructions
The following verbal instructions will give more practice on downloading files from the internet. Download MP3 files from training download link under training link of www.freedomscientific.com.
You need to download the following files for practice:
• Latest version of NVDA.
• Latest version of JAWS demo.
• Surf’s Up, Surfing the Internet (MP3)
• Convenient OCR MP3 File Recording
• Virtual Ribbon Menus Feature, New in JAWS 12 (MP3)
Summary and Takeaway
• The notifications given by the browser will be displayed through the notification bar.
• Example: The Notification bar displays the Notifications or questions asked by Internet Explorer such as do you want to save the password, the web page is closed unexpectedly, would you like to restore the previously opened page etc.
• The notifications are provided in a dialog box in previous versions of Internet Explorer.
• All the Notifications are displayed through notification bar in internet explorer 9. Notification bar can be accessed by pressing the command Alt + N.
• You can navigate through its options by pressing the command Tab and shift tab and the arrow keys.
Points to Remember
The goal of this section is to focus on some key areas while learning this concept.
• You may get confused and may not understand what is happening when you activate the download option on the webpage. Sometimes NVDA does not announce properly. This may also happen if you activate the download option and press control key. NVDA will stop speaking in this case.
• Sometimes NVDA may not read the notification bar and sometimes other interruptions may stop NVDA to read the Notification bar.
• When you press the command Alt + N, you will find the options to download if the action is in process. OR if the action is complete.
• You may not find the download option at all as your listening skills may need to improve or you may not be good at English. Take your trainer’s help and practice how to download files. Don’t give up.

Introduction to Search Engines

This topic will introduce you to the concept of internet search engines. After going through this topic, you will be able to:
• Understand what a search engine is.
• Understand the need of search engine on the internet.
• Understand the popular search engines.
Concept Explanation
• You must have used the directory service Just Dial to find out phone numbers. The search engine works like the Just Dial service. It is difficult to get the required information from the internet as we may not know which website contains the information that is needed. It is also not possible to know all the website names.
• We need some tool which can look through the available web pages on the internet and filters the web pages according to the required information. The internet search engines help in this regard.
• Search engines are applications that search for required information on the internet. In the search engine it is important to use the correct key word or search criteria. Earlier we used to give a keyword or search criteria to search within the website. Here it will search all websites.
• Using the right keywords is important. For example if in a police station you go and lodge a complaint. Based on your description of the thief, the inspector may show the photos of suspects. Similarly, the search engine gives a results page where a list of links is shown.
• The search engine filters the web pages according to the keyword or search criteria given by the user. It filters the web pages accordingly and displays the results in the results page of internet browser.
• There are many service providers who provide website search service. The most popular search engines are Google, Yahoo, Rediff, MSN etc.
Try this on your own
We will be covering Google search engine. Use a keyword to search for some information and see what results it gives. Use down arrow and learn the page layout.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What is search engine?
Answer:
b) What does the search engine do?
Answer:
c) What is a keyword?
Answer:
d) Name a few popular search engines.
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• It is difficult to get the required information on the internet as we cannot know which website provides relevant information and what the website’s name is.
• We have to go through many websites to get the required information.
• Search engines help us in filtering web pages and display the links to the relevant web pages that contain the information we are searching for.
• Many search engines are available on the internet.
• Most popular search engines are: Yahoo, Rediff, MSN and Google search engine.
Points to Remember
You need to be sure you have understood these important points while learning this concept:
• Make sure you get the concept of a search engine.
• Which keyword will you use if you want to search for a fridge? For a recipe? Search and show the trainers the results.
• Keep refining your search using different keywords. Observe which keywords give you the correct results.


Introduction to Website Search

This topic will introduce you to the concept of searching within website. After going through this topic, you will be able to:
• Understand what searching within the website means.
• Use the correct keyword for search.
• Search for information quickly within a website.
Concept Explanation
• The search feature within a website helps in searching for information within the particular website. Example: If you are in the eyeway website, you can search for information within the eyeway website by using the search option in it.
• This is similar to file search on our computer. Type the file or the folder name and activate the search button. All the files and folder with the name are listed. Similarly, we need to enter the keyword in the search edit box and hit enter. All the information related to the keyword within the website is displayed on the results page.
• Basically the search feature of a website contains the same elements as a web search in which we can type the search criteria and a search button which can help in activating the search.
• Some web sites may have more options depending on the information it is meant to search. Like a library website may have various search criteria like search by title, author, date etc.
• You can find the search option in most of the websites, but it may not be available in some other websites.
• Let us see the demo of how to perform search and get the required information within the website.
• Before the demo go through the home page of learningally.org by using the down arrow. Make a note of key words you will use to search for information on this website.
• Observe how the webpage layout is before we search and how the layout changes after we hit the search button.
Practical Demonstration
Follow the instructions given below to search within a website.
Note: We have used the website “learningally.org”. You can find any other website if “learningally.org” is not available.
• Open the website www.learningally.org through Internet explorer and open the website. Check the title by pressing the command Insert + T and check the title.
• What is the title NVDA announced? Answer: Dyslexia Support | Learning Ally. Let us go through the page and understand what the website is about.
• What is the use of this website? Answer: Making accessible books available for all kind of disabilities.
• Let us search now for some accessible books. How will you search for these books? Answer: through search. By typing the book/author name in the search edit box and activating the search button.
• Press control + Home to take the focus to the top of the page. Press the letter “E” to take the focus to the search edit and press the letter “E”. Press space bar to put on forms mode and press space bar.
• NVDA will make a beeping sound once the forms mode is on. We will discuss more about forms mode later.
Note: You can type text in the edit box only if forms mode is put on. The beep sound indicates that it is on and you can type only after you hear this sound.
• Now type the book name “The da vinci code“. Let’s find this book on this website. This is the key word that you typed. Using the correct key words is very important to search a website effectively.
• After typing the keyword, we need to now activate search button to search for the book on the website. Press escape key or insert + space keys to put off forms mode. There will be another beep sound to indicate that forms mode is off.
• Press the Letter “B” to move the focus to the search button and press the space bar to activate it. Hear what NVDA announces. After activating the search button, a new web page is loaded with the search results.
• Go through this page. Pay attention to how the page is arranged. You will see that the page is arranged in the following way:
• Some links on the top, a search edit box in which we can type the search criteria, a button which can activate the search, some links after the button, links related to search: Books, news related to the search criteria etc.
• 2 drop down lists (Combo) through which we can select the results per page and the results: book name, author etc and links related to the web site.
• How can we quickly jump to the place where the search results are there? Answer: the search results are just below the drop down list (below the combo). Press the letter “C” to jump to the drop down and press down arrow keys.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What does it mean: searching within the website?
Answer:
b) How the search option within the website is useful.
Answer:
c) What is difference between internet search and searching within the website?
Answer:
d) List a few websites where you came across the search option.
Answer:
Verbal Instructions for more practice
Visit the Enable India website and eyeway.org. Search for work place solutions, opportunities for volunteers, training programs etc. What keywords will you use for getting information on the above topics?
Summary and Takeaway
• We may come across lot of websites while browsing the internet.
• Some websites may have lot of information, products and services available on the websites and it may be difficult to search for the right information/ product/ the service in the website.
• It will be useful if we have some tool which can help to search the information/ product/ the service in the website quickly.
• We can use the search option within the website. This helps in getting the information quickly from the website.
• The search option within the website works the same way, like website search, but the search option inside a website helps search for information only within the website.
Points to Remember
Focus on these key areas while learning this topic:
• Sometimes you may not able to find the search results as each website is structured differently. You may have to explore the website and explore how to search for information.
• To get good search results it is important that you use correct keywords. Discuss keywords with your trainer or friends. Ask them a few questions like what keyword will you use to search for assistive technology on eyeway.org? If you are searching for training in Enable India, what keyword will you use?
• Practice going to different websites and explore search options.

Working With News Websites

This topic will help you systematically navigate through the home page of a news website using Internet Explorer 9. At the end of this session, you will be able to understand:
• How to navigate through the home page of a news website
• How to read actual news from a news website
• Basic structure of a news website
Concept Explanation
Note: We have used a saved version of The Hindu newspaper for demo purposes. This is because content on news websites changes every day and it may not be practical to give a live demo.
If you do not have access to the saved version of the paper, you can use the live paper and use this manual accordingly.
• You already know how to open Internet Explorer and enter a website address in the address bar. We have also seen some simple websites like Vivekananda.org, eyeway.org, enableindia.org ncpedp.org etc.
• A news website, like a newspaper, contains the following elements:
o Headlines with a short preview of the article. These headlines are links that lead to inner pages for a more detailed report.
o Breaking news, editorials, opinions etc.
o Regional news, Sports news, Business news, Classifieds, Advertisements
o Different city editions like Bangalore edition, Chennai edition, Delhi edition etc.
• The home page of a news website is what comes up when we enter the website address and press enter. Like for example in this case www.thehindu.com displays all the information that the newspaper contains. It cannot display everything in detail, so most of it is displayed in links that lead to inner pages or other webpages.
• There are breaking news articles that are listed one below the other as links.
• There are editorial articles that are displayed as links.
• There are advertisements that are displayed in pictures or flash videos.
• We need to understand the structure of a news webpage in order to understand how to navigate quickly through it. For this, let us go through a demo using the Hindu webpage to learn more about a news website.
Practical Demo
If you are using IE to access the live Hindu website, make these settings. The links used for this demo will not be the same as on the live website.
Note: Make sure you activate the status bar in the browser and uncheck the screen review mode in NVDA preferences before starting the demo.
• You now know how to type the website address in the address bar – open Internet Explorer, press Alt + D. Type www.thehindu.com in the address bar and press enter. Apply process discipline of checking the title of the website and status bar when it opens. Press insert + T to check title of webpage. Answer: NVDA reads the title as “The Hindu, latest news, breaking news……”.
• For the sake of this demo, we have used a set of environment files. You can find these files in the folder “hindupaper” for this demo. Use arrow keys to navigate through this folder and select the file “index.html” in this folder. Hit enter to open index.html in Internet Explorer.
Home page navigation
• Index.html opens with the home page. Navigate through the page and see how it is structured. Use the down arrow to navigate and press the down arrow.
• What does NVDA read? Answer: Out of frame link today’s paper. This means today’s paper is the first link on the home page. Continue using down arrow and pay attention to what NVDA says.
• What does NVDA say? Answer: link Archive, link Subscriptions, link RSS feeds, link Site Map, etc. This means there are many links which we can click and go to another web page. Keep pressing the down arrow.
• NVDA reads search edit and then button go. We will learn more about edit boxes and buttons in upcoming sessions. Keep pressing the down arrow till we hear graphic and press down arrow till NVDA reads “link graphic return to front page”.
• What do you understand by link graphic? This means there is a picture or graphic here and if you click here it will take you to the page that contains more details on the advertisement. Did you pay attention what came before link graphic? Answer: button “go”. We must remember this as a landmark to navigate through the page. This graphic link breaks the first set of links.
• Press down arrow and see what else is there on the home page. Press down arrow multiple times, then press the up arrow multiple times until you understand the links. Stop pressing down arrow when NVDA says IPL.
• Which was the first link after link graphic? Answer: Link home.
• Which other link names did you hear? Answer: News, Sports, Business, Books, Jobs, Classifieds, etc. So what do you think these are? Answer: These are the categories under which more news can be read. So if you want to only read sports news, you could press the sports link. If you are looking for jobs, you can press the jobs link and so on.
• Press down arrow to see what else the page contains. NVDA reads: Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram.
• Why are names of cities listed here? Note the first city and the last city that NVDA reads out. Answer: There are different editions for different cities. For example, Bangalore edition will include more Karnataka news. NVDA announces Bangalore followed by different cities. This list ends with Vijayawada.
• We have now seen three sets of links. Can you try to name them? Answer: The first from link today’s paper to link social. The second from link home to link IPL. Third from link Bangalore to link Vijayawada. It is important for the visually challenged to visualize the structure and landmarks of the news webpage so that they can navigate through it faster. Again press the down arrow.
• Press down arrow till you hear graphic. Press the up and down arrow till you understand what NVDA says. NVDA reads “graphic……VHP leader Pravin Togadia….” This means there is a picture that is a link along with a caption or a brief description of what is there in the picture. If you want to read more about this graphic, you can click on the graphic and go to another web page with details.
• Remember what has been covered till now. Keep pressing the down arrow until NVDA reads “heading level 1 link: FIR filed against Togadia…”. Why is NVDA reading it as Heading level 1? Answer: This is because it is an important headline. The level of the heading will give a clue to which news has made headlines or is important. Can anyone tell me what the headline is? Answer: FIR filed against Togadia.
• Press down arrow. What does NVDA read? Answer: NVDA reads a short write up on the FIR filed “The Vishwa Hindu Parishad leader …….in Hindu localities” followed by link. This means that after the short write up, there is a link which, on pressing, leads you to another page with more details. Let’s click on this link. Press space bar. NVDA starts reading the new webpage that has opened.
Reading Actual News
• Let NVDA finish reading the page. What is the title of this page? Answer: “FIR filed against Togadia for his hate speech”. What do you think it will contain? It gives a detailed report on the bandh.
• Use the down arrow and see what this page contains. Keep pressing the down arrow till NVDA reads “Heading level 1, FIR filed against Togadia …..”. So this means more details about this FIR being filed against Togadia is there below this heading.
• Press the down arrow and let NVDA read. What do you hear? NVDA reads out an advertisement. Press down arrow. NVDA reads a graphic, then some text. Again it reads graphic and text. Keep pressing down arrow till the actual news begins.
• When does NVDA start reading the main article which starts with “The VHP leader created a controversy……”? Answer: After NVDA reads heading level 3 link “discrimination”.
• Keep pressing the down arrow so that NVDA reads the article. Now you have read the whole article on the FIR filed against the VHP leader.
Note: If you are unable to follow, reduce the speed of NVDA, read the news again. Pay attention to the following things while navigating- when the news begins, when it ends, landmark before news begins, graphic, ad.
Reading Local news
• Now let’s read some local Bangalore news. Which link will lead you to the Bangalore news section? Answer: Bangalore link.
• You may not want to go to the beginning of the page and use down arrow again. It takes too much time. How will you do it faster? Answer – By using the Elements List dialog box. Press insert + F7 to bring up the dialog box. Press b till you hear Bangalore link. Press the space bar on the link.
• NVDA reads “Bangalore News, Bangalore city news and updates…”. Now you are in the web page which contains Bangalore news. Now quickly go through the main headings on this page. How will you do it? Answer: Press h.
• Start pressing h. Hear what headings NVDA reads. After listening to about four or five headings, try to remember the first heading. Answer: “MH192 passengers all praise for captain, link heading level 1”. Try to remember some level 2 headings that NVDA read. Answer: “Déjà vu for Sydney- based scientist…..”, “Bangalore one runs out of Property tax forms……” and so on.
• We have now seen how to navigate quickly through headings on a news webpage. Get back to the home page. How will you go back to the home page? Answer: Press Alt + left arrow and go back to the home page.
Sports page
• How will you reach the sports article link on the home page? Press the key h multiple times until NVDA reads Sports heading level 3 link. Press space bar on the link. The editorial page opens. Check the title by pressing insert + T.
• Keep going through the Sports page until you have a good understanding of the various articles and their heading levels. Keep pressing h to go through the various headings on the page. Name a few heading level 1, 2 and 3 headings to check if you have understood.
• Use alt + left arrow to go back to the home page. You now understand the basic layout of a news website and how to read actual news on it.
Note: Do an exercise on deccanherald.com after the demo is over.
Instructions for More Practice
• Open the local copy of www.thehindu.com.
Note: For the sake of the demo we have used some locally saved copies of the news site. When you access the hindu.com website, the latest edition of the newspaper will be available online. The layout will be more or less the same, but obviously content will differ.
• Go through the home page completely using the down arrow.
• Use headings key h to go through the various headings.
• Read out a few articles from the sports page.
• Read a few headings and their full stories under breaking news.
Note: Once you are comfortable with the homepage, guide another friend through it again and explain each element of the homepage. You must find landmarks on the homepage.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) Before reading actual news, what is the best practice to follow on a news website?
Answer:
b) Why should we navigate through the home page of a news website by using the down arrow?
Answer:
c) Name a few headlines in the news website homepage we covered in the demo.
Answer:
d) What are some of the news categories we came across while navigating through the home page?
Answer:
e) What is a quick way of scanning through a news webpage?
Answer:
f) What other webpage elements did you come across in thehindu.com?
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• Learn to navigate through a news website like thehindu.com. The first page is the home page which contains a host of links, headings and graphic links.
• A news website, like a newspaper, contains the following elements:
o Headlines with a short preview of the article. These headlines are links that lead to inner pages for a more detailed report.
o Breaking news, editorials, opinions etc.
o Regional news, Sports news, Business news, Classifieds, Advertisements
o Different city editions like Bangalore edition, Chennai edition, Delhi edition etc.
• The home page of a news website is what comes up when we enter the website address and press enter. Like for example in this case www.thehindu.com displays all the information that the newspaper contains. It cannot display everything in detail, so most of it is displayed in links that lead to inner pages or other webpages.
• There are breaking news articles that are listed one below the other as links.
• There are editorial articles that are displayed as links.
• There are advertisements that are displayed in pictures or flash videos.
• We need to understand the structure of a news webpage in order to understand how to navigate quickly through it. For this, let us go through a demo using the Hindu webpage to learn more about a news website.
• Follow process discipline:
o Re-checking the title of the page by pressing insert + T
o Going to top of page by pressing control + home
o Using the down arrow repeatedly to navigate through the page, while listening to what NVDA says.
• Use quick access keys like h for headings, l for lists, g for graphics, t for tables. Mostly h is used because reading news is all about understanding the headlines and pressing on the heading links.
• Through the demonstration we have seen the home page, main article inner page, a local edition page and the editorial page navigation.
Points to Remember
Below are the key areas you need to focus while learning this topic:
• Make sure you are able to understand the concept of a home page and its layout.
• Make sure you go through the home page elements repeatedly by following process discipline. See to it that they visualize landmarks in the page. Later encourage them to use h to scan through the headings.
• You may have a lot of questions regarding the home page, links and text. First navigate constantly to understand the layout. There are many links, ads and graphics which may be confusing. Just make sure you are able to access the important headings and read a few articles fully.

.

Introduction to Element List

We have already covered a few single letter navigation keys in the previous topic. This topic will introduce NVDA efficiency Keystrokes to navigate through a website faster.
After going through this topic, your candidates should be able to:
• Understand the Element list dialog box
• Quickly access headings and activate links through the element list dialog box
• Quickly bring the focus near a heading or link.
Concept Explanation
• While using the down arrow to go through websites, you may find that some websites have more links; some may have more headings than links etc. When you navigate through a website you form an image in your mind about it.
• You have navigated through a few websites and know how information is arranged in websites like Vivekananda.org or eyeway.org. You may have found it difficult to get information quickly from these websites by navigating only using up and down arrows.
• Now let us learn about one dialog box which will help us in reading or browsing for information very quickly. While going through a webpage, if you press insert + F7, an elements list box opens up. Just like when you place one palm on top of the other, the elements list box opens on top of the webpage. It does not cover the webpage fully, only partly.
• The Elements’ list is the list of all the elements on a webpage like links, headings etc. Let us understand more about the element list dialog box and its features with a practical demonstration.
Practical Demonstration
Note: Make sure you activate the status bar in the browser and uncheck the screen review mode in NVDA preferences before starting the demo.
• First, open IE and open the www.vivekananda.org website. We already know how to open a website from our earlier sessions.
• Press insert + F7. Press the keys and hear what NVDA says. NVDA says “Elements List dialog, tree view click here to go to vedanta boston website”. What does NVDA say? What do you mean by tree view? Answer: A tree view shows the items in a particular order, according to their levels. For example, if we were to show a tree view for fruits and vegetables, we will have under fruits: apple, orange, mango etc. Under vegetables we will have potato, onion, cabbage etc.
Links List
• Let us see what the tree view contains. Press insert + tab to confirm the focus. NVDA says “click here to go to vedanta boston website, tree view item focus selected 1 of 25, level 0”.
• Press down arrow again. What does NVDA say? Answer: NVDA says “Home, 2 of 25, level 0”.
• Keep pressing down arrow and hear all the link names NVDA announces. Answer: It reads all the links listed in the tree view on the webpage. Do you remember these links? You already know them from the home page of Vivekananda.org. But remember we are not on the webpage; we are in the elements’ list dialog box.
• We now know that the tree view lists all the links on the webpage. Now let us see what other controls are there in the Elements’ list dialog box.
• Keep pressing tab to get familiar with this dialog box controls. Show this to the candidates. What does NVDA say? Each time you press tab, NVDA says: Filter by edit field, Activate button, Move to button, Cancel button, Type, Links radio button.
• Again press tab. What does NVDA say? Answer: tree view click here to go to vedanta boston website. What does this mean? Answer: This means we are now at the same place where we started first, when the list dialog box opened.
• Press the down arrow and select the biography link in the link list. Show it to the candidates. What does NVDA say? Answer: Biography, 4 of 25.
• After selecting the biography link from the list, you can go to this link using two ways:
o Press enter OR
o Press tab till you hear Activate button. Press the space bar.
• Both these ways will make the dialog box disappear and will lead you to the linked webpage. You can reach a link faster if you type the first letter of the link. Let’s see how.
o Press insert + F7. The Elements list dialog box comes up.
o If you want to go to the link Readings, type R. What does NVDA say? It reads out the Readings link.
o Press enter or press tab till NVDA announces activate button and press the space bar.
• You can use Move to button to go to the link on the webpage. This does not take you to the webpage of the link. This only leads you to the link on the webpage.
• Let’s see the steps to use the Move to button:
o On the home page, press insert + F7. The Elements list dialog box comes up.
o If you want to go to the link Contact Us. Select Contact us from the links list.
o Press tab till NVDA announces Move to button and press the space bar or enter. What does NVDA say? It reads the home page title and says Contact Us link.
• It helps to take the focus to the text link “contact us”. You can then use the up or down arrow to read more information.
• The links list is like a table of contents to a visually impaired user. This helps us reach a link in a fraction of a second. Once you get familiar with the webpage by using the down arrow key, you can use the Elements list box to access the links faster. There is no need to go to top of the webpage or use the down arrow keys continuously to navigate through a webpage.
Headings List
• We now know that we can use the links list if a webpage has many links. But what do we do when the webpage has many heading levels? Let us do an activity to understand this better.
• Open www.eyeway.org website. On the home page, under Inspires heading, go to the Achievers link. Under music and dance, gather information on Indian and international achievers. Check how much time it takes to collect this information by using arrow keys. You may have taken 15 minutes to do this. But you can do it much faster. Let’s see how.
• Check if you are on the Achiever’s Eyeway webpage and then press insert + F7. Press the keys and hear what NVDA says. NVDA says “Elements List dialog, tree view Eyewayhome……level 0”. We now know that this is the links list, right?
• Just like the links list, the elements list also shows headings list. Since you have learnt how to use headings list while you went through NVDA help, you can access the eyeway website using headings list.
• Keep pressing tab to go through the dialog box controls. What does NVDA say? Each time you press tab, NVDA says: Filter by edit field, Activate button, Cancel button, Type, Links radio button. After NVDA says Links radio button, press down arrow. What does NVDA say? Answer: “Headings radio button checked focus”. What does this mean? Answer: this means that next to the Links radio button there is another radio button named headings.
• Press tab here and hear NVDA saying “You are here tree view item one of two level 0”. So now we are in the headings tree view.
• Use the down arrow and hear what NVDA says. NVDA reads the different headings with their levels. Stop when NVDA says “Music and Dance” under Indian Achievers.
• After selecting the Music and Dance from the list, you can go to this heading using two ways:
o Press enter OR
o Press tab till you hear move to button. Press the space bar.
• Both these ways will make the dialog box disappear and will lead you to the heading on the Achievers’ webpage. NVDA says “Music and Dance heading level 3”.
• Press the down arrow. What does NVDA read? Answer: Link Buse Gowda, Link Ravindra Jain, Link Sant Surdas. So now you know the Indian achievers under music and dance. Let’s now look at International achievers.
• You can reach a heading faster if you type the first letter. Let’s see how.
o Press insert + F7. The Elements list dialog box comes up. Observe that the focus is already on the headings radio button.
o If you want to go to the heading International Achievers, type I. What does NVDA say? It reads out the International Achievers heading.
• Press enter or press tab till NVDA announces move to button and press the space bar.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What is advantage of using the links list and what is the efficiency keystroke to open it?
Answer:
b) What are the controls in the Elements list dialog?
Answer:
c) What are the two ways to go to a link from the links list dialog?
Answer:
d) What does the move to button do? List the steps to use the Move to button?
Answer:
e) Will you get links under the headings radio button? How will you navigate to the headings radio button?
Answer:
f) In the Elements List dialog box, when will you use the links radio button and when will you use the headings radio button?
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• In a new website, you need to first familiarize yourself. You can use down arrow keys to understand the layout of a webpage and then use a combination of single letter navigation keys and NVDA efficiency keystrokes to navigate faster.
• Press Insert + F7 to bring up the Elements List dialog on a webpage.
• The links list contains a list of all the links on the webpage in a tree view. This helps a visually impaired person to quickly access links or read text under these links.
• The Elements’ list dialog controls are:
o Tree view links list
o Filter by edit field
o Activate button
o Move to button
o Cancel button
o Type: links radio button, headings radio button
• Steps for accessing a link quickly using the link list is as follows:
o Select the link from the list. You can go to this link on the webpage using two ways:
o Press enter OR
o Press tab till you hear Activate button. Press the space bar.
o Both these ways will make the dialog box disappear and will lead you to the linked webpage.
• You can use Move to button to go to the link on the webpage. This does not take you to the webpage of the link. This only leads you to the link on the webpage.
o On the home page, press insert + F7. The Elements list dialog box comes up.
o Select a link from the links list.
o Press tab till NVDA announces Move to button and press the space bar or enter. NVDA reads the webpage title and reads out the link you have chosen.
• The tree view under the headings radio button contains a list of headings the webpage contains. Use the down arrow after you hear NVDA announce “links radio button” to go to the headings radio button.
• Links list helps to quickly navigate to links on a webpage that has many links. Headings list helps to quickly navigate to headings on a webpage that has many heading levels. To first understand if the webpage has more links or headings, candidates need to use the down arrow key to understand the layout of a website.
Points to Remember
Below are the key areas you need to focus while learning this topic:
• Make sure you visualize the elements’ dialog box correctly. You may be confused between using the Links list and tree view, Headings list and tree view.
• Use down arrow first to understand website layout.
• You need to know when to use activate button and move to button. You need to be clear about the purpose of using any of these buttons.
• Practice using the Elements list.

SINGLE LETTER NAVIGATION PART 2

We have already covered a few single letter navigation keys in the previous topic. This topic will introduce some more single letter navigation keys to surf a website faster.
After going through this topic, you should be able to:
• Understand the need for quick website navigation
• Press the right keys to bring up NVDA Input help
• Use a few more single letter navigation keys
• Navigate through a website efficiently
Concept Explanation
• To navigate through any website first use the arrow keys to understand the layout of the webpage. Once you understand the layout, you need to be able to navigate through a webpage like the sighted do, quickly. For this you must use the single letter navigation keys.
• If there are two roads to your home-one road takes 45 mins and the second road takes 1.5 hours-which one will you use? Answer: The shorter road. But to know the first route well, you must know the landmarks on the way. You must also know the directions. So if you have OVI maps on your mobile that gives you instructions on where to turn, won’t it be perfect?
• You know a few single letter navigation keys. Let us see how to use these keys while browsing for information on various websites like eyeway.org, enable-india.org and disabilityindia.org.
Practical Demonstration
Note: Make sure you activate the status bar in the browser and uncheck the screen review mode in NVDA preferences before starting the demo.
• First open IE and go to the eyeway.org website. We already know how to open a website from our earlier sessions. You must have already gone through this website by using the down arrow. You must be familiar with the page layout, structure of information, headings, links etc. How much time did it take for you to go through the home page using down arrow?
• Now you have a little idea on how to use lists and headings after going through NVDA help. Let’s see a few single letter navigation keys.
Single Letter Navigation key h
• Follow process discipline and go to top of page. Press h. What does NVDA say? Answer: “Eyeway, heading level 1”.
• Press h again. NVDA says “Informs heading level 2”. Press h again – NVDA says “Inspires heading level 2”. Keep pressing h and listen to what NVDA says until it says “No next heading”.
• What do you think happens when you keep pressing h? Answer: Focus quickly goes from one heading to next heading on the webpage until there are no more headings on the page. To go to the previous heading, press Shift + h. Now you will be able to navigate faster through a web page if you use single letter navigation key.
Single Letter Navigation key L
• Follow process discipline and go to top of page. Press l. What does NVDA say? Answer: “List with 5 items……Home visited link”.
• Press l twice. NVDA says “List with eleven items….Acts and Policies”. Press down arrow – NVDA reads “Personality development”. Keep pressing down arrow and check the eleven items in the list.
• Keep pressing l and listen to what NVDA says until it says “No next list”. What do you think happens when you keep pressing L? Answer: Focus quickly goes from one list to the next list on the webpage until there are no more lists on the page.
• Remember – Before using list item or headings, you must be aware of the web page layout by using down arrow.
Check Your Understanding
This exercise is to make sure you have understood the concepts. Answer the following questions:
a) What is advantage of using single letter navigation keys?
Answer:
b) Name the single letter navigation keys covered in this session and explain.
Answer:
c) How will you decide which single letter navigation key to use in websites?
Answer:
d) Which key will you use to see if there are any graphics or tables on the webpage?
Answer:
e) From the bottom of document, if I press h can we go to the first heading? What will NVDA announce? (no more headings)
Answer:
f) How do I go to the previous heading or list?
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• In a new website, you need to first find landmarks so that you can familiarize yourself. You can use down arrow keys to understand the layout of a webpage and then use single letter navigation keys to navigate faster.
• Press key h to navigate to headings on the webpage.
• Press key L to navigate to lists on the webpage.
• Press key g to navigate to a graphic on the webpage.
• Press key t to navigate to a table on the webpage.
• With these single navigation keys, we can quickly navigate between headings, lists, list items, graphics etc.
Single letter Navigation Options
Single Letter Navigation Keys Description
Key h Navigates to heading on the webpage
Key L Navigates to list on a webpage
Key g Navigates to graphic on a webpage
Key t Navigates to table on a webpage.
Points to Remember
Below are the key areas you need to focus while learning this topic:
• Use the down arrow keys until you are familiar with a website. Do not use single letter navigation keys until you are familiar with a website.
• You may get confused with the different single letter navigation keys. Use the keys one by one and keep practicing.

Single letter navigation keys

This topic will introduce some single letter navigation keys to surf a website faster. After going through this topic, you should be able to:
• Understand the need for quick website navigation
• Use a few single letter navigation keys
• Navigate through a website efficiently
Concept Explanation
• It is not easy to navigate through any website using arrow keys as webpages may contain many links, text and menus.
• If someone asks you for a glass of water at your home and at a friend’s house, where will you get water faster? In your home or your friend’s house? Answer: At our home. You will get water faster in your own home because you know all the landmarks in your home, you know the way to the kitchen perfectly. This may not be the case in your friend’s house. You will have to first find landmarks by using your cane and then find your way to the kitchen and so on.
• Similarly, in a new website, you need to first find landmarks so that you can familiarize yourself. You can use down arrow keys to understand the layout of a webpage and then use single letter navigation keys to navigate faster. Let us see how through a demo.
Practical Demonstration
Note: Make sure you activate the status bar in the browser and uncheck the screen review mode in NVDA preferences before starting the demo.
• Open IE and go to the Vivekananda.org website. We have already learnt how to do this in our earlier sessions.
• Open the website www.vivekananda.org and open the biography link.
Single letter navigation key n
• In the biography page use process discipline and first go to top of page (Control + home). Let’s press the key n. Press n and hear what NVDA says. Answer: NVDA says “Biography”. What does this mean? Answer: This means that the focus has moved to the next available text, it skips all the links before it.
• Now press n again. What does NVDA say? Answer: NVDA says “No more text after block of links”. This means there is no more text after the block of links.
• What happens when we press n? Answer: Focus moves from one block of text to another. Instead of going through all the links using the down arrow and then reaching the text, we could press n to directly go to the text. So now we know one single letter navigation key. Let’s learn some more.
Single letter navigation keys h and k
• Now press h. Hear what NVDA says. Answer: “No next heading”. This navigation key moves focus from one heading to the next until all headings on the page are over. Try this on other websites like eyeway.org. We’ll learn more about this in the next session. See SM_Topic12_Quick navigation keys Internet 2.doc.
• Now press k. Keep pressing the key k and hear what NVDA says. Answer: NVDA takes the focus to the next link. When you keep pressing the key k repeatedly, it reads the links one after the other in the order that they are displayed on the page.
• Explore these two quick navigation keys h and k by yourself on different websites.
Single letter navigation key v
• You may go through a web page using down arrow, but forget which links you have visited. It maybe too tedious to go through the whole webpage again using down arrow keys. In this case press v.
• Let us now go to the Ramakrishna Order link. Use process discipline and go to top of page first (Control + home).
• Press v here. What does NVDA say? NVDA says: visited link: Home.
• Press v again. What does NVDA say? NVDA says: visited link: Biography.
• Press v again. What does NVDA say? NVDA says: visited link: Ramakrishna order.
• Press v again. What does NVDA say? NVDA says: “No Next visited link”. What does this mean? Answer – Pressing v the first time takes the focus to the first visited link. Pressing it again takes the focus to the second visited link (Biography) and the third time takes us to the third visited link Ramakrishna order.
• When we press v the fourth time, NVDA announces that there are no next visited links. So now you know the links you have visited quickly. If we want to move to the previous visited link, what keys should we use? Hint: In a dialog box, how will you go to the previous control? Use shift + V and show how the focus moves to the previous visited link.
• To Move to any previous element in the internet, we can use shift with any navigation key. Let us now learn another single letter navigation key.
Single letter navigation key u
• You may go through a web page using down arrow, but may want to go through the links you have not visited. Again it maybe too tedious to go through the whole webpage again using down arrow keys. In this case press u.
• Let us now go to the Ramakrishna Order link. Use process discipline and go to top of page first (Control + home).
• Press u here. Show this to your candidates. What does NVDA say? Let the candidates hear what NVDA says. NVDA says: “Click here to go to vedanta.boston website link”.
• Press u again. What does NVDA say? NVDA says: Vivekananda tour link.
• Press u again. What does NVDA say? NVDA says: Readings link.
• Press u again. What does NVDA say? NVDA says: FAQs link.
• Now keep pressing the key u and listen to what NVDA says. Pressing u the first time takes the focus to the first link that you have not visited. Pressing it again takes the focus to the second link (Vivekananda tour) you have not visited and the third time takes us to the third link Readings that you have not visited. Pressing u after this takes you through all the links you have not visited on the webpage.
• Name a few links that NVDA announced when you pressed u after FAQs. Answer: Build calendar, Contact us, Swami Vivekananda link, Belur link, branches link, USA link, India link. Using quick navigation key u, we can reach any of the unvisited links faster.
• Where does the focus go when we press u? Focus goes through all the links that you have not visited, until NVDA announces “no more unvisited link”. So now you know the links you have not visited quickly. Let us now learn another single letter navigation key.
Introduction to Graphics
• We have seen some graphics on the Vivekananda.org welcome page. Now let’s see the importance of graphics. Let’s open the Vivekananda website, use the down arrow and navigate to the graphic.
• How much time do you take to reach the graphic? Which key command helps you go to the home page of vivekananda.org? Answer: Use the down arrow till NVDA reads “link graphic index 2”.
• Is there a way to reach this link graphic quickly? Let us use the single letter navigation for graphic “g” on the welcome page. Hit g till NVDA reads “graphic index 2”. Hit the space bar. What does NVDA read? Answer: Home page.
• This single letter navigation key is for jumping from one graphic to the next is “g”. Use Shift g to go to the previous graphic.
Check Your Understanding
Answer the following questions to check how much you have understood the concept:
a) What is the advantage of using single letter navigation keys?
Answer:
b) Name the single letter navigation keys covered in this session and explain.
Answer:
c) What does NVDA say when you press n on the Biography link page of Vivekananda.org? What happens when you press n again?
Answer:
d) How will you move to the previous element on web pages?
Answer:
Summary and Takeaway
• In a new website, you need to first find landmarks so that you can familiarize yourself. You can use down arrow keys to understand the layout of a webpage and then use single letter navigation keys to navigate faster.
• Press key n to navigate to text on the webpage.
• Press key v to navigate through visited links on the webpage.
• Press key u to navigate through unvisited links on the webpage.
• Press key g to navigate through all the graphics on the webpage.

Shortcut Keys/Single letter navigation keys
Shortcut /Quick Access Keys Description
Control + Home Takes the focus to top of webpage
Control + End Takes the focus to end of webpage
Key n Navigates to text after link on the webpage
Key h Navigates to the next heading on the webpage
Key k Navigates to the next link on the webpage
Key v Navigates through visited links on a webpage
Key u Navigates through unvisited links on a webpage
Key g Navigates through all the graphics on a webpage.
Points to Remember
Below are the key areas you need to focus while learning this topic:
You may get confused with the different keys, visited links and unvisited links. In this case you need to keep trying it one by one till you understand. Use Key k if they you are still confused.